Limits...
Evaluation of analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-depressant and anti-coagulant properties of Lactuca sativa (CV. Grand Rapids) plant tissues and cell suspension in rats.

Ismail H, Mirza B - BMC Complement Altern Med (2015)

Bottom Line: Interestingly, the extracts and the cell suspension exudate showed dual inhibition by reducing pain and inflammation.In anticoagulant assay, the coagulation time of aspirin (positive control) and MC extract of leaf was comparable, suggesting strong anti-coagulant effect.Taken together, L. sativa can potentially act as a strong herbal drug due to its multiple pharmaceutical effects and is therefore of interest in drug discovery and development of formulations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Quaid-I-Azam University, 45320, Islamabad, Pakistan. hammadismail5@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Lactuca sativa (lettuce) has been traditionally used for relieving pain, inflammation, stomach problems including indigestion and lack of appetite. Moreover, the therapeutic significance of L. sativa includes its anticonvulsant, sedative-hypnotic and antioxidant properties.

Methods: In the present study, the MC (methanol and chloroform; 1:1) and aqueous extracts of seed and leaf along with cell suspension exudate were prepared. These extracts were explored for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant and anticoagulant effects by hot plate analgesic assay; carrageenan induced hind paw edema test, forced swimming test and capillary method for blood clotting respectively in a rat model. The results were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Turkey multiple comparison test.

Results: Interestingly, the extracts and the cell suspension exudate showed dual inhibition by reducing pain and inflammation. The results indicated that the aqueous extracts of leaf exhibited highest analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities followed by leaf MC, cell suspension exudate, seed aqueous and seed MC extracts. The current findings show that aqueous and MC extracts of seed have the least immobility time in the forced swimming test, which could act as an anti-depressant on the central nervous system. The leaf extracts and cell suspension exudate also expressed moderate anti-depressant activities. In anticoagulant assay, the coagulation time of aspirin (positive control) and MC extract of leaf was comparable, suggesting strong anti-coagulant effect. Additionally, no abnormal behavior or lethality was observed in any animal tested.

Conclusion: Taken together, L. sativa can potentially act as a strong herbal drug due to its multiple pharmaceutical effects and is therefore of interest in drug discovery and development of formulations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Graphical representation of antidepressant assay (Values are expressed in mean ± S.D) where * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01 statistically significant as compared to control group
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4482268&req=5

Fig3: Graphical representation of antidepressant assay (Values are expressed in mean ± S.D) where * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01 statistically significant as compared to control group

Mentions: In the present study, we explored the anti-depressant effect of L. sativa via forced swimming test that represents the pharmacological model and produces a state similar to human depression [22]. This test is very specific and sensitive; and the state of depression is decreased by numerous agents like 5HT-reuptake inhibitors, tricyclics and MAO inhibitors [23]. All antidepressant drugs increase the total swimming time and decrease immobility time [24]. It has been recognized that swimming is sensitive to serotonergic compounds for example fluoxetine and that climbing is sensitive to tricyclic antidepressants and drug with selective effects on noradrenergic transmission [23]. The results of antidepressant activity are graphically expressed in Fig. 3. A significant reduction in immobility time was observed for all the extracts when compared with negative control. Similarly, fluoxetine HCl used as positive control showed prominent reduction in immobility time. The immobility by the seed extracts was greater than that of the leaf extracts and cell suspension exudate. It was noted that the immobility activity was comparable in cell suspension exudate and leaf extracts. In literature, it has been reported that treatment with antidepressants reduces the oxidative stress related to depressive disorder and flavonoids contain antioxidant property which is demonstrated experimentally by the rise of the plasma antioxidant status [25].Fig. 3


Evaluation of analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-depressant and anti-coagulant properties of Lactuca sativa (CV. Grand Rapids) plant tissues and cell suspension in rats.

Ismail H, Mirza B - BMC Complement Altern Med (2015)

Graphical representation of antidepressant assay (Values are expressed in mean ± S.D) where * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01 statistically significant as compared to control group
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4482268&req=5

Fig3: Graphical representation of antidepressant assay (Values are expressed in mean ± S.D) where * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01 statistically significant as compared to control group
Mentions: In the present study, we explored the anti-depressant effect of L. sativa via forced swimming test that represents the pharmacological model and produces a state similar to human depression [22]. This test is very specific and sensitive; and the state of depression is decreased by numerous agents like 5HT-reuptake inhibitors, tricyclics and MAO inhibitors [23]. All antidepressant drugs increase the total swimming time and decrease immobility time [24]. It has been recognized that swimming is sensitive to serotonergic compounds for example fluoxetine and that climbing is sensitive to tricyclic antidepressants and drug with selective effects on noradrenergic transmission [23]. The results of antidepressant activity are graphically expressed in Fig. 3. A significant reduction in immobility time was observed for all the extracts when compared with negative control. Similarly, fluoxetine HCl used as positive control showed prominent reduction in immobility time. The immobility by the seed extracts was greater than that of the leaf extracts and cell suspension exudate. It was noted that the immobility activity was comparable in cell suspension exudate and leaf extracts. In literature, it has been reported that treatment with antidepressants reduces the oxidative stress related to depressive disorder and flavonoids contain antioxidant property which is demonstrated experimentally by the rise of the plasma antioxidant status [25].Fig. 3

Bottom Line: Interestingly, the extracts and the cell suspension exudate showed dual inhibition by reducing pain and inflammation.In anticoagulant assay, the coagulation time of aspirin (positive control) and MC extract of leaf was comparable, suggesting strong anti-coagulant effect.Taken together, L. sativa can potentially act as a strong herbal drug due to its multiple pharmaceutical effects and is therefore of interest in drug discovery and development of formulations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Quaid-I-Azam University, 45320, Islamabad, Pakistan. hammadismail5@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Lactuca sativa (lettuce) has been traditionally used for relieving pain, inflammation, stomach problems including indigestion and lack of appetite. Moreover, the therapeutic significance of L. sativa includes its anticonvulsant, sedative-hypnotic and antioxidant properties.

Methods: In the present study, the MC (methanol and chloroform; 1:1) and aqueous extracts of seed and leaf along with cell suspension exudate were prepared. These extracts were explored for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant and anticoagulant effects by hot plate analgesic assay; carrageenan induced hind paw edema test, forced swimming test and capillary method for blood clotting respectively in a rat model. The results were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Turkey multiple comparison test.

Results: Interestingly, the extracts and the cell suspension exudate showed dual inhibition by reducing pain and inflammation. The results indicated that the aqueous extracts of leaf exhibited highest analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities followed by leaf MC, cell suspension exudate, seed aqueous and seed MC extracts. The current findings show that aqueous and MC extracts of seed have the least immobility time in the forced swimming test, which could act as an anti-depressant on the central nervous system. The leaf extracts and cell suspension exudate also expressed moderate anti-depressant activities. In anticoagulant assay, the coagulation time of aspirin (positive control) and MC extract of leaf was comparable, suggesting strong anti-coagulant effect. Additionally, no abnormal behavior or lethality was observed in any animal tested.

Conclusion: Taken together, L. sativa can potentially act as a strong herbal drug due to its multiple pharmaceutical effects and is therefore of interest in drug discovery and development of formulations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus