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Evaluation of analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-depressant and anti-coagulant properties of Lactuca sativa (CV. Grand Rapids) plant tissues and cell suspension in rats.

Ismail H, Mirza B - BMC Complement Altern Med (2015)

Bottom Line: Interestingly, the extracts and the cell suspension exudate showed dual inhibition by reducing pain and inflammation.In anticoagulant assay, the coagulation time of aspirin (positive control) and MC extract of leaf was comparable, suggesting strong anti-coagulant effect.Taken together, L. sativa can potentially act as a strong herbal drug due to its multiple pharmaceutical effects and is therefore of interest in drug discovery and development of formulations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Quaid-I-Azam University, 45320, Islamabad, Pakistan. hammadismail5@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Lactuca sativa (lettuce) has been traditionally used for relieving pain, inflammation, stomach problems including indigestion and lack of appetite. Moreover, the therapeutic significance of L. sativa includes its anticonvulsant, sedative-hypnotic and antioxidant properties.

Methods: In the present study, the MC (methanol and chloroform; 1:1) and aqueous extracts of seed and leaf along with cell suspension exudate were prepared. These extracts were explored for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant and anticoagulant effects by hot plate analgesic assay; carrageenan induced hind paw edema test, forced swimming test and capillary method for blood clotting respectively in a rat model. The results were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Turkey multiple comparison test.

Results: Interestingly, the extracts and the cell suspension exudate showed dual inhibition by reducing pain and inflammation. The results indicated that the aqueous extracts of leaf exhibited highest analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities followed by leaf MC, cell suspension exudate, seed aqueous and seed MC extracts. The current findings show that aqueous and MC extracts of seed have the least immobility time in the forced swimming test, which could act as an anti-depressant on the central nervous system. The leaf extracts and cell suspension exudate also expressed moderate anti-depressant activities. In anticoagulant assay, the coagulation time of aspirin (positive control) and MC extract of leaf was comparable, suggesting strong anti-coagulant effect. Additionally, no abnormal behavior or lethality was observed in any animal tested.

Conclusion: Taken together, L. sativa can potentially act as a strong herbal drug due to its multiple pharmaceutical effects and is therefore of interest in drug discovery and development of formulations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Percentage anti-inflammatory effect at different time intervals (Values are expressed in mean ± S.D) where * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01 statistically significant as compared to control group
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Fig2: Percentage anti-inflammatory effect at different time intervals (Values are expressed in mean ± S.D) where * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01 statistically significant as compared to control group

Mentions: Carrageenan induced hind paw edema test has been extensively used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of new pharmaceutical agents [2]. All the extracts of L. sativa established significant anti-inflammatory effect by regulating biphasic inflammatory process induced by carrageenan (Table 2). The initial phase (1-2 h) of the inflammation is due to the release of serotonin ad histamine while the final phase (3-4 h) is considered by the peak volume of hind paw [20]. As shown in Fig. 2, leaf extracts exhibited maximum percentage inhibition of inflammation. The activity of cell suspension exudate was almost similar to that of a leaf extract in comparison while more than that of seed extract. On the other hand, the results revealed that aqueous extracts were more active in reducing the inflammation than the MC extracts. Our results indicated that oral dose of L. sativa repressed the edema preliminary from the 1st hour and throughout all stages of inflammation, which is perhaps due to inactivation of different chemical mediators of inflammation. Phytochemical profile of Lactuca sativa suggests the presence of simple phenols, triterpenoids and saponins [4] and triterpenoids are well known for their anti-inflammatory properties [21]. Therefore, it seems that analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential of Lactuca sativa seeds might be related to its triterpenoids and saponins.Table 2


Evaluation of analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-depressant and anti-coagulant properties of Lactuca sativa (CV. Grand Rapids) plant tissues and cell suspension in rats.

Ismail H, Mirza B - BMC Complement Altern Med (2015)

Percentage anti-inflammatory effect at different time intervals (Values are expressed in mean ± S.D) where * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01 statistically significant as compared to control group
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4482268&req=5

Fig2: Percentage anti-inflammatory effect at different time intervals (Values are expressed in mean ± S.D) where * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01 statistically significant as compared to control group
Mentions: Carrageenan induced hind paw edema test has been extensively used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of new pharmaceutical agents [2]. All the extracts of L. sativa established significant anti-inflammatory effect by regulating biphasic inflammatory process induced by carrageenan (Table 2). The initial phase (1-2 h) of the inflammation is due to the release of serotonin ad histamine while the final phase (3-4 h) is considered by the peak volume of hind paw [20]. As shown in Fig. 2, leaf extracts exhibited maximum percentage inhibition of inflammation. The activity of cell suspension exudate was almost similar to that of a leaf extract in comparison while more than that of seed extract. On the other hand, the results revealed that aqueous extracts were more active in reducing the inflammation than the MC extracts. Our results indicated that oral dose of L. sativa repressed the edema preliminary from the 1st hour and throughout all stages of inflammation, which is perhaps due to inactivation of different chemical mediators of inflammation. Phytochemical profile of Lactuca sativa suggests the presence of simple phenols, triterpenoids and saponins [4] and triterpenoids are well known for their anti-inflammatory properties [21]. Therefore, it seems that analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential of Lactuca sativa seeds might be related to its triterpenoids and saponins.Table 2

Bottom Line: Interestingly, the extracts and the cell suspension exudate showed dual inhibition by reducing pain and inflammation.In anticoagulant assay, the coagulation time of aspirin (positive control) and MC extract of leaf was comparable, suggesting strong anti-coagulant effect.Taken together, L. sativa can potentially act as a strong herbal drug due to its multiple pharmaceutical effects and is therefore of interest in drug discovery and development of formulations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Quaid-I-Azam University, 45320, Islamabad, Pakistan. hammadismail5@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Lactuca sativa (lettuce) has been traditionally used for relieving pain, inflammation, stomach problems including indigestion and lack of appetite. Moreover, the therapeutic significance of L. sativa includes its anticonvulsant, sedative-hypnotic and antioxidant properties.

Methods: In the present study, the MC (methanol and chloroform; 1:1) and aqueous extracts of seed and leaf along with cell suspension exudate were prepared. These extracts were explored for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant and anticoagulant effects by hot plate analgesic assay; carrageenan induced hind paw edema test, forced swimming test and capillary method for blood clotting respectively in a rat model. The results were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Turkey multiple comparison test.

Results: Interestingly, the extracts and the cell suspension exudate showed dual inhibition by reducing pain and inflammation. The results indicated that the aqueous extracts of leaf exhibited highest analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities followed by leaf MC, cell suspension exudate, seed aqueous and seed MC extracts. The current findings show that aqueous and MC extracts of seed have the least immobility time in the forced swimming test, which could act as an anti-depressant on the central nervous system. The leaf extracts and cell suspension exudate also expressed moderate anti-depressant activities. In anticoagulant assay, the coagulation time of aspirin (positive control) and MC extract of leaf was comparable, suggesting strong anti-coagulant effect. Additionally, no abnormal behavior or lethality was observed in any animal tested.

Conclusion: Taken together, L. sativa can potentially act as a strong herbal drug due to its multiple pharmaceutical effects and is therefore of interest in drug discovery and development of formulations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus