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Structure and dynamics of the membrane attaching nitric oxide transporter nitrophorin 7.

Knipp M, Ogata H, Soavi G, Cerullo G, Allegri A, Abbruzzetti S, Bruno S, Viappiani C, Bidon-Chanal A, Luque FJ - F1000Res (2015)

Bottom Line: However, a chain-like arrangement in the crystal lattice due to a number of head-to-tail electrostatic stabilizing interactions is found in NP7.Fast and ultrafast laser triggered ligand rebinding experiments demonstrate the pH-dependent ligand migration within the cavities and the exit route.Finally, the topological distribution of pockets located around the heme as well as from inner cavities present at the rear of the protein provides a distinctive feature in NP7, so that while a loop gated exit mechanism to the solvent has been proposed for most nitrophorins, a more complex mechanism that involves several interconnected gas hosting cavities is proposed for NP7.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Max-Planck-Institut für Chemische Energiekonversion, Mülheim an der Ruhr, 45470, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Nitrophorins represent a unique class of heme proteins that are able to perform the delicate transportation and release of the free-radical gaseous messenger nitric oxide (NO) in a pH-triggered manner. Besides its ability to bind to phospholipid membranes, the N-terminus contains an additional Leu-Pro-Gly stretch, which is a unique sequence trait, and the heme cavity is significantly altered with respect to other nitrophorins. These distinctive features encouraged us to solve the X-ray crystallographic structures of NP7 at low and high pH and bound with different heme ligands (nitric oxide, histamine, imidazole). The overall fold of the lipocalin motif is well preserved in the different X-ray structures and resembles the fold of other nitrophorins. However, a chain-like arrangement in the crystal lattice due to a number of head-to-tail electrostatic stabilizing interactions is found in NP7. Furthermore, the X-ray structures also reveal ligand-dependent changes in the orientation of the heme, as well as in specific interactions between the A-B and G-H loops, which are considered to be relevant for the biological function of nitrophorins. Fast and ultrafast laser triggered ligand rebinding experiments demonstrate the pH-dependent ligand migration within the cavities and the exit route. Finally, the topological distribution of pockets located around the heme as well as from inner cavities present at the rear of the protein provides a distinctive feature in NP7, so that while a loop gated exit mechanism to the solvent has been proposed for most nitrophorins, a more complex mechanism that involves several interconnected gas hosting cavities is proposed for NP7.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Local structural details of Glu27.Spatial location relative (a) to the heme cofactor and (b) with respect to His60 and Phe43. For comparison, the structures of NP7(green), NP2 (blue) and NP4 (orange) are displayed.
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f5: Local structural details of Glu27.Spatial location relative (a) to the heme cofactor and (b) with respect to His60 and Phe43. For comparison, the structures of NP7(green), NP2 (blue) and NP4 (orange) are displayed.

Mentions: The crystal structures allow detailed examination of Glu27 (Figure 5a). The side-chain is folded away from the hydrophobic heme side toward the interior of the structure, where it is involved in a network of H-bonding contacts. This includes a single water that is further coordinated to Tyr175 near the protein surface. It was previously found that the mutation Glu27→Gln has a remarkable destabilizing effect on the NP7 fold30. It can now be understood that the negative charge of Glu27 attracts the Tyr175 hydroxyl group, which forms an important interaction. On the other hand, the dense packing of side-chains next to His60 was identified as another destabilizing factor of the FeII–NHis60 bond, where Phe43 plays a crucial role44.Figure 5b shows the arrangement in comparison to the crystal structures of NP2 and NP4. Phe43 is oriented parallel to the heme plane with a distance of 3.5 Ǻ leading to π-stacking between the two aromatic rings. Moreover, the phenyl ring is perpendicularly oriented toward the His60 plane with a distance of 3.6 Ǻ. The distance between Glu27:Cβ and Phe43:Cβ is 4.0 Ǻ, while Glu27 also H-bonds to Phe43:NH.


Structure and dynamics of the membrane attaching nitric oxide transporter nitrophorin 7.

Knipp M, Ogata H, Soavi G, Cerullo G, Allegri A, Abbruzzetti S, Bruno S, Viappiani C, Bidon-Chanal A, Luque FJ - F1000Res (2015)

Local structural details of Glu27.Spatial location relative (a) to the heme cofactor and (b) with respect to His60 and Phe43. For comparison, the structures of NP7(green), NP2 (blue) and NP4 (orange) are displayed.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4482215&req=5

f5: Local structural details of Glu27.Spatial location relative (a) to the heme cofactor and (b) with respect to His60 and Phe43. For comparison, the structures of NP7(green), NP2 (blue) and NP4 (orange) are displayed.
Mentions: The crystal structures allow detailed examination of Glu27 (Figure 5a). The side-chain is folded away from the hydrophobic heme side toward the interior of the structure, where it is involved in a network of H-bonding contacts. This includes a single water that is further coordinated to Tyr175 near the protein surface. It was previously found that the mutation Glu27→Gln has a remarkable destabilizing effect on the NP7 fold30. It can now be understood that the negative charge of Glu27 attracts the Tyr175 hydroxyl group, which forms an important interaction. On the other hand, the dense packing of side-chains next to His60 was identified as another destabilizing factor of the FeII–NHis60 bond, where Phe43 plays a crucial role44.Figure 5b shows the arrangement in comparison to the crystal structures of NP2 and NP4. Phe43 is oriented parallel to the heme plane with a distance of 3.5 Ǻ leading to π-stacking between the two aromatic rings. Moreover, the phenyl ring is perpendicularly oriented toward the His60 plane with a distance of 3.6 Ǻ. The distance between Glu27:Cβ and Phe43:Cβ is 4.0 Ǻ, while Glu27 also H-bonds to Phe43:NH.

Bottom Line: However, a chain-like arrangement in the crystal lattice due to a number of head-to-tail electrostatic stabilizing interactions is found in NP7.Fast and ultrafast laser triggered ligand rebinding experiments demonstrate the pH-dependent ligand migration within the cavities and the exit route.Finally, the topological distribution of pockets located around the heme as well as from inner cavities present at the rear of the protein provides a distinctive feature in NP7, so that while a loop gated exit mechanism to the solvent has been proposed for most nitrophorins, a more complex mechanism that involves several interconnected gas hosting cavities is proposed for NP7.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Max-Planck-Institut für Chemische Energiekonversion, Mülheim an der Ruhr, 45470, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Nitrophorins represent a unique class of heme proteins that are able to perform the delicate transportation and release of the free-radical gaseous messenger nitric oxide (NO) in a pH-triggered manner. Besides its ability to bind to phospholipid membranes, the N-terminus contains an additional Leu-Pro-Gly stretch, which is a unique sequence trait, and the heme cavity is significantly altered with respect to other nitrophorins. These distinctive features encouraged us to solve the X-ray crystallographic structures of NP7 at low and high pH and bound with different heme ligands (nitric oxide, histamine, imidazole). The overall fold of the lipocalin motif is well preserved in the different X-ray structures and resembles the fold of other nitrophorins. However, a chain-like arrangement in the crystal lattice due to a number of head-to-tail electrostatic stabilizing interactions is found in NP7. Furthermore, the X-ray structures also reveal ligand-dependent changes in the orientation of the heme, as well as in specific interactions between the A-B and G-H loops, which are considered to be relevant for the biological function of nitrophorins. Fast and ultrafast laser triggered ligand rebinding experiments demonstrate the pH-dependent ligand migration within the cavities and the exit route. Finally, the topological distribution of pockets located around the heme as well as from inner cavities present at the rear of the protein provides a distinctive feature in NP7, so that while a loop gated exit mechanism to the solvent has been proposed for most nitrophorins, a more complex mechanism that involves several interconnected gas hosting cavities is proposed for NP7.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus