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Epigenetic modifications of caveolae associated proteins in health and disease.

Low JY, Nicholson HD - BMC Genet. (2015)

Bottom Line: Caveolae are small, "omega-shaped" invaginations at the plasma membrane of the cell which are involved in a variety of processes including cholesterol transport, potocytosis and cell signalling.Evidence is beginning to accumulate that epigenetic processes may regulate the expression of these caveolae related genes, and hence contribute to disease progression.Here, we summarize the current knowledge of the role of epigenetic modification in regulating the expression of these caveolae related genes and how this relates to changes in cellular physiology and in health and disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Otago School of Medical Sciences, University of Otago, P.O. Box 913, Dunedin, 9054, New Zealand. lowji021@student.otago.ac.nz.

ABSTRACT
Caveolae are small, "omega-shaped" invaginations at the plasma membrane of the cell which are involved in a variety of processes including cholesterol transport, potocytosis and cell signalling. Within caveolae there are caveolae-associated proteins, and changes in expression of these molecules have been described to play a role in the pathophysiology of various diseases including cancer and cardiovascular disease. Evidence is beginning to accumulate that epigenetic processes may regulate the expression of these caveolae related genes, and hence contribute to disease progression. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of the role of epigenetic modification in regulating the expression of these caveolae related genes and how this relates to changes in cellular physiology and in health and disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of HBV’s X protein on CAV1 expression. HCC samples infected with HBV demonstrate decreased CAV1 expression. This effect is due to the promoter hypermethylation of CAV1 by HBV’s X protein, causing transcriptional silencing of CAV1
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Fig1: Effect of HBV’s X protein on CAV1 expression. HCC samples infected with HBV demonstrate decreased CAV1 expression. This effect is due to the promoter hypermethylation of CAV1 by HBV’s X protein, causing transcriptional silencing of CAV1

Mentions: Promoter hypermethylation of CAV1 is also seen in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines [75] and HCC tissues and is accompanied by reduced expression of CAV1 [75]. Further, 5-AZA treatment causes up-regulated CAV1 expression in hepatoma cells [75]. One of the risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is exposure to Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and in particular to HBV’s X protein. This protein is able to promote tumorigenesis through activation of signaling pathways, growth factors and oncogenes. Furthermore, HBV’s X protein inactivates negative growth regulators such as p53 to favor metastasis [76, 77]. Interestingly, HCC samples that are infected with HBV show significant suppression of CAV1 expression through hypermethylation of CAV1’s promoter [77], due to the hypermethylation effect of HBV’s X protein on CAV1’s promoter (Fig. 1) [77].Fig. 1


Epigenetic modifications of caveolae associated proteins in health and disease.

Low JY, Nicholson HD - BMC Genet. (2015)

Effect of HBV’s X protein on CAV1 expression. HCC samples infected with HBV demonstrate decreased CAV1 expression. This effect is due to the promoter hypermethylation of CAV1 by HBV’s X protein, causing transcriptional silencing of CAV1
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4482180&req=5

Fig1: Effect of HBV’s X protein on CAV1 expression. HCC samples infected with HBV demonstrate decreased CAV1 expression. This effect is due to the promoter hypermethylation of CAV1 by HBV’s X protein, causing transcriptional silencing of CAV1
Mentions: Promoter hypermethylation of CAV1 is also seen in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines [75] and HCC tissues and is accompanied by reduced expression of CAV1 [75]. Further, 5-AZA treatment causes up-regulated CAV1 expression in hepatoma cells [75]. One of the risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is exposure to Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and in particular to HBV’s X protein. This protein is able to promote tumorigenesis through activation of signaling pathways, growth factors and oncogenes. Furthermore, HBV’s X protein inactivates negative growth regulators such as p53 to favor metastasis [76, 77]. Interestingly, HCC samples that are infected with HBV show significant suppression of CAV1 expression through hypermethylation of CAV1’s promoter [77], due to the hypermethylation effect of HBV’s X protein on CAV1’s promoter (Fig. 1) [77].Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Caveolae are small, "omega-shaped" invaginations at the plasma membrane of the cell which are involved in a variety of processes including cholesterol transport, potocytosis and cell signalling.Evidence is beginning to accumulate that epigenetic processes may regulate the expression of these caveolae related genes, and hence contribute to disease progression.Here, we summarize the current knowledge of the role of epigenetic modification in regulating the expression of these caveolae related genes and how this relates to changes in cellular physiology and in health and disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Otago School of Medical Sciences, University of Otago, P.O. Box 913, Dunedin, 9054, New Zealand. lowji021@student.otago.ac.nz.

ABSTRACT
Caveolae are small, "omega-shaped" invaginations at the plasma membrane of the cell which are involved in a variety of processes including cholesterol transport, potocytosis and cell signalling. Within caveolae there are caveolae-associated proteins, and changes in expression of these molecules have been described to play a role in the pathophysiology of various diseases including cancer and cardiovascular disease. Evidence is beginning to accumulate that epigenetic processes may regulate the expression of these caveolae related genes, and hence contribute to disease progression. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of the role of epigenetic modification in regulating the expression of these caveolae related genes and how this relates to changes in cellular physiology and in health and disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus