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Sensor node for remote monitoring of waterborne disease-causing bacteria.

Kim K, Myung H - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Image streaming and web console servers run on an embedded processor with an expansion board.The sensor node can repeat water testing until the test reagent is depleted.The authors anticipate that the use of the sensor node developed in this research can decrease the cost and required labor for testing samples in a factory environment and checking the water quality of local water sources in developing countries.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Daejeon 305-338, Korea. kyukwang.kim@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
A sensor node for sampling water and checking for the presence of harmful bacteria such as E. coli in water sources was developed in this research. A chromogenic enzyme substrate assay method was used to easily detect coliform bacteria by monitoring the color change of the sampled water mixed with a reagent. Live webcam image streaming to the web browser of the end user with a Wi-Fi connected sensor node shows the water color changes in real time. The liquid can be manipulated on the web-based user interface, and also can be observed by webcam feeds. Image streaming and web console servers run on an embedded processor with an expansion board. The UART channel of the expansion board is connected to an external Arduino board and a motor driver to control self-priming water pumps to sample the water, mix the reagent, and remove the water sample after the test is completed. The sensor node can repeat water testing until the test reagent is depleted. The authors anticipate that the use of the sensor node developed in this research can decrease the cost and required labor for testing samples in a factory environment and checking the water quality of local water sources in developing countries.

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Circuit composition of the system. Power and ground lines are not shown for simplification of the diagram.
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sensors-15-10569-f003: Circuit composition of the system. Power and ground lines are not shown for simplification of the diagram.

Mentions: The sensor node was designed to operate three low voltage, self-priming DC water pumps (Seeed Technology Limited, Shenzhen, China) to perform an enzyme assay. The sampling pump drains water directly from the source to the reaction chamber. The reagent pump adds a specific amount of substrates with the culture media (Colitag® or LB with X-gal), and the purge pump removes the tested water sample after the assay to prepare for the next step. The chromogenic process in the reaction chamber can be monitored by a camera attached to a sensor node, and streamed via a network connection to the end user. An Embedded Linux board (Intel® Edison development board from Intel, Santa Clara, CA, USA) with Arduino expansions were used as the main processor for network connections, camera streaming, and handling the user input/output (I/O) across Wi-Fi and a webpage. An additional Arduino board (Arduino, Ivrea, Italy) was attached for stable Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) control of the pump motors. The overall circuit diagram and connections are shown in Figure 3.


Sensor node for remote monitoring of waterborne disease-causing bacteria.

Kim K, Myung H - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Circuit composition of the system. Power and ground lines are not shown for simplification of the diagram.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4482013&req=5

sensors-15-10569-f003: Circuit composition of the system. Power and ground lines are not shown for simplification of the diagram.
Mentions: The sensor node was designed to operate three low voltage, self-priming DC water pumps (Seeed Technology Limited, Shenzhen, China) to perform an enzyme assay. The sampling pump drains water directly from the source to the reaction chamber. The reagent pump adds a specific amount of substrates with the culture media (Colitag® or LB with X-gal), and the purge pump removes the tested water sample after the assay to prepare for the next step. The chromogenic process in the reaction chamber can be monitored by a camera attached to a sensor node, and streamed via a network connection to the end user. An Embedded Linux board (Intel® Edison development board from Intel, Santa Clara, CA, USA) with Arduino expansions were used as the main processor for network connections, camera streaming, and handling the user input/output (I/O) across Wi-Fi and a webpage. An additional Arduino board (Arduino, Ivrea, Italy) was attached for stable Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) control of the pump motors. The overall circuit diagram and connections are shown in Figure 3.

Bottom Line: Image streaming and web console servers run on an embedded processor with an expansion board.The sensor node can repeat water testing until the test reagent is depleted.The authors anticipate that the use of the sensor node developed in this research can decrease the cost and required labor for testing samples in a factory environment and checking the water quality of local water sources in developing countries.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Daejeon 305-338, Korea. kyukwang.kim@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
A sensor node for sampling water and checking for the presence of harmful bacteria such as E. coli in water sources was developed in this research. A chromogenic enzyme substrate assay method was used to easily detect coliform bacteria by monitoring the color change of the sampled water mixed with a reagent. Live webcam image streaming to the web browser of the end user with a Wi-Fi connected sensor node shows the water color changes in real time. The liquid can be manipulated on the web-based user interface, and also can be observed by webcam feeds. Image streaming and web console servers run on an embedded processor with an expansion board. The UART channel of the expansion board is connected to an external Arduino board and a motor driver to control self-priming water pumps to sample the water, mix the reagent, and remove the water sample after the test is completed. The sensor node can repeat water testing until the test reagent is depleted. The authors anticipate that the use of the sensor node developed in this research can decrease the cost and required labor for testing samples in a factory environment and checking the water quality of local water sources in developing countries.

Show MeSH