Limits...
Novel real-time diagnosis of the freezing process using an ultrasonic transducer.

Tseng YH, Cheng CC, Cheng HP, Lee D - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: The freezing stage governs several critical parameters of the freeze drying process and the quality of the resulting lyophilized products.These periods increased with water volume and decreased with shelf temperature (i.e., speed of freezing).This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the ultrasonic sensor and technology for diagnosing and optimizing the process of water freezing to save energy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Energy and Refrigerating Air-Conditioning Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan. yhtntut@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
The freezing stage governs several critical parameters of the freeze drying process and the quality of the resulting lyophilized products. This paper presents an integrated ultrasonic transducer (UT) in a stainless steel bottle and its application to real-time diagnostics of the water freezing process. The sensor was directly deposited onto the stainless steel bottle using a sol-gel spray technique. It could operate at temperature range from -100 to 400 °C and uses an ultrasonic pulse-echo technique. The progression of the freezing process, including water-in, freezing point and final phase change of water, were all clearly observed using ultrasound. The ultrasonic signals could indicate the three stages of the freezing process and evaluate the cooling and freezing periods under various processing conditions. The temperature was also adopted for evaluating the cooling and freezing periods. These periods increased with water volume and decreased with shelf temperature (i.e., speed of freezing). This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the ultrasonic sensor and technology for diagnosing and optimizing the process of water freezing to save energy.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Photographs of (a) the freeze dryer machine with vacuum chamber, controller unit, refrigeration unit and vacuum pump; (b) the digital oscilloscope and (c) the ultrasonic pulser/receiver unit.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4481992&req=5

sensors-15-10332-f004: Photographs of (a) the freeze dryer machine with vacuum chamber, controller unit, refrigeration unit and vacuum pump; (b) the digital oscilloscope and (c) the ultrasonic pulser/receiver unit.

Mentions: In this experiment, a 4 L, air-cooling type shelf freeze dryer machine (TYFD-50005, Tai Yiaeh, New Taipei City, Taiwan), equipped with vacuum chamber, refrigeration and control units, as shown in Figure 4a, was used. The vacuum chamber was for freezing and drying the samples under low temperature (+50~−40 °C) and pressure (760~0.05 torr) conditions.


Novel real-time diagnosis of the freezing process using an ultrasonic transducer.

Tseng YH, Cheng CC, Cheng HP, Lee D - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Photographs of (a) the freeze dryer machine with vacuum chamber, controller unit, refrigeration unit and vacuum pump; (b) the digital oscilloscope and (c) the ultrasonic pulser/receiver unit.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4481992&req=5

sensors-15-10332-f004: Photographs of (a) the freeze dryer machine with vacuum chamber, controller unit, refrigeration unit and vacuum pump; (b) the digital oscilloscope and (c) the ultrasonic pulser/receiver unit.
Mentions: In this experiment, a 4 L, air-cooling type shelf freeze dryer machine (TYFD-50005, Tai Yiaeh, New Taipei City, Taiwan), equipped with vacuum chamber, refrigeration and control units, as shown in Figure 4a, was used. The vacuum chamber was for freezing and drying the samples under low temperature (+50~−40 °C) and pressure (760~0.05 torr) conditions.

Bottom Line: The freezing stage governs several critical parameters of the freeze drying process and the quality of the resulting lyophilized products.These periods increased with water volume and decreased with shelf temperature (i.e., speed of freezing).This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the ultrasonic sensor and technology for diagnosing and optimizing the process of water freezing to save energy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Energy and Refrigerating Air-Conditioning Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan. yhtntut@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
The freezing stage governs several critical parameters of the freeze drying process and the quality of the resulting lyophilized products. This paper presents an integrated ultrasonic transducer (UT) in a stainless steel bottle and its application to real-time diagnostics of the water freezing process. The sensor was directly deposited onto the stainless steel bottle using a sol-gel spray technique. It could operate at temperature range from -100 to 400 °C and uses an ultrasonic pulse-echo technique. The progression of the freezing process, including water-in, freezing point and final phase change of water, were all clearly observed using ultrasound. The ultrasonic signals could indicate the three stages of the freezing process and evaluate the cooling and freezing periods under various processing conditions. The temperature was also adopted for evaluating the cooling and freezing periods. These periods increased with water volume and decreased with shelf temperature (i.e., speed of freezing). This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the ultrasonic sensor and technology for diagnosing and optimizing the process of water freezing to save energy.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus