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ZnO Nanostructure-Based Intracellular Sensor.

Asif MH, Danielsson B, Willander M - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Recently ZnO has attracted much interest because of its usefulness for intracellular measurements of biochemical species by using its semiconducting, electrochemical, catalytic properties and for being biosafe and biocompatible.ZnO thus has a wide range of applications in optoelectronics, intracellular nanosensors, transducers, energy conversion and medical sciences.For intracellular measurements, the ZnO nanowires/nanorods were grown on the tip of a borosilicate glass capillary (0.7 µm in diameter) and functionalized with membranes or enzymes to produce intracellular selective metal ion or glucose sensors.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000, Pakistan. asifhassan@ciitlahore.edu.pk.

ABSTRACT
Recently ZnO has attracted much interest because of its usefulness for intracellular measurements of biochemical species by using its semiconducting, electrochemical, catalytic properties and for being biosafe and biocompatible. ZnO thus has a wide range of applications in optoelectronics, intracellular nanosensors, transducers, energy conversion and medical sciences. This review relates specifically to intracellular electrochemical (glucose and free metal ion) biosensors based on functionalized zinc oxide nanowires/nanorods. For intracellular measurements, the ZnO nanowires/nanorods were grown on the tip of a borosilicate glass capillary (0.7 µm in diameter) and functionalized with membranes or enzymes to produce intracellular selective metal ion or glucose sensors. Successful intracellular measurements were carried out using ZnO nanowires/nanorods grown on small tips for glucose and free metal ions using two types of cells, human fat cells and frog oocytes. The sensors in this study were used to detect real-time changes of metal ions and glucose across human fat cells and frog cells using changes in the electrochemical potential at the interface of the intracellular micro-environment. Such devices are helpful in explaining various intracellular processes involving ions and glucose.

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Experimental setup for simultaneous test solution injection and potentiometric measurements, (A) Schematic illustration of the setup and (B) Photography of Xenopus oocyte penetrated by the reference electrode (left), measurement electrode (right), and injector (middle).
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sensors-15-11787-f010: Experimental setup for simultaneous test solution injection and potentiometric measurements, (A) Schematic illustration of the setup and (B) Photography of Xenopus oocyte penetrated by the reference electrode (left), measurement electrode (right), and injector (middle).

Mentions: After the success of the intracellular metal ions detection, intracellular physiological change of metal ions such as K+ alteration measurement by using ZnO nanostructure based microelectrode parallel with electrophysiological verification was of great interest. The aim of this work was therefore to study sensitivity and the possibility of using the K+ specific microprobe to detect changes in intracellular K+ concentrations in xenopus oocytes following injection of various test solutions. Potentiometric measurements were done in parallel with electrophysiological measurements to verify the accuracy of the detected concentrations [26]. The experimental setup for injection and detection of K+ is shown in Figure 10.


ZnO Nanostructure-Based Intracellular Sensor.

Asif MH, Danielsson B, Willander M - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Experimental setup for simultaneous test solution injection and potentiometric measurements, (A) Schematic illustration of the setup and (B) Photography of Xenopus oocyte penetrated by the reference electrode (left), measurement electrode (right), and injector (middle).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4481971&req=5

sensors-15-11787-f010: Experimental setup for simultaneous test solution injection and potentiometric measurements, (A) Schematic illustration of the setup and (B) Photography of Xenopus oocyte penetrated by the reference electrode (left), measurement electrode (right), and injector (middle).
Mentions: After the success of the intracellular metal ions detection, intracellular physiological change of metal ions such as K+ alteration measurement by using ZnO nanostructure based microelectrode parallel with electrophysiological verification was of great interest. The aim of this work was therefore to study sensitivity and the possibility of using the K+ specific microprobe to detect changes in intracellular K+ concentrations in xenopus oocytes following injection of various test solutions. Potentiometric measurements were done in parallel with electrophysiological measurements to verify the accuracy of the detected concentrations [26]. The experimental setup for injection and detection of K+ is shown in Figure 10.

Bottom Line: Recently ZnO has attracted much interest because of its usefulness for intracellular measurements of biochemical species by using its semiconducting, electrochemical, catalytic properties and for being biosafe and biocompatible.ZnO thus has a wide range of applications in optoelectronics, intracellular nanosensors, transducers, energy conversion and medical sciences.For intracellular measurements, the ZnO nanowires/nanorods were grown on the tip of a borosilicate glass capillary (0.7 µm in diameter) and functionalized with membranes or enzymes to produce intracellular selective metal ion or glucose sensors.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000, Pakistan. asifhassan@ciitlahore.edu.pk.

ABSTRACT
Recently ZnO has attracted much interest because of its usefulness for intracellular measurements of biochemical species by using its semiconducting, electrochemical, catalytic properties and for being biosafe and biocompatible. ZnO thus has a wide range of applications in optoelectronics, intracellular nanosensors, transducers, energy conversion and medical sciences. This review relates specifically to intracellular electrochemical (glucose and free metal ion) biosensors based on functionalized zinc oxide nanowires/nanorods. For intracellular measurements, the ZnO nanowires/nanorods were grown on the tip of a borosilicate glass capillary (0.7 µm in diameter) and functionalized with membranes or enzymes to produce intracellular selective metal ion or glucose sensors. Successful intracellular measurements were carried out using ZnO nanowires/nanorods grown on small tips for glucose and free metal ions using two types of cells, human fat cells and frog oocytes. The sensors in this study were used to detect real-time changes of metal ions and glucose across human fat cells and frog cells using changes in the electrochemical potential at the interface of the intracellular micro-environment. Such devices are helpful in explaining various intracellular processes involving ions and glucose.

Show MeSH