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Angular Displacement and Velocity Sensors Based on Coplanar Waveguides (CPWs) Loaded with S-Shaped Split Ring Resonators (S-SRR).

Naqui J, Coromina J, Karami-Horestani A, Fumeaux C, Martín F - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: It follows that the rotation angle and speed can be inferred either by measuring the frequency response of the S-SRR-loaded line, or the response amplitude at a fixed frequency in the vicinity of resonance.It is in addition shown that the angular velocity can be accurately determined from the time-domain response of a carrier time-harmonic signal tuned at the S-SRR resonance frequency.Despite the small size of the fabricated proof-of-concept prototype (electrically small structures do not usually reject signals efficiently), it exhibits good linearity (on a logarithmic scale), sensitivity and dynamic range.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CIMITEC, Departament d'Enginyeria Electrònica, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain. Jordi.Naqui@uab.cat.

ABSTRACT
In this paper, angular displacement and angular velocity sensors based on coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission lines and S-shaped split ring resonators (S-SRRs) are presented. The sensor consists of two parts, namely a CPW and an S-SRR, both lying on parallel planes. By this means, line-to-resonator magnetic coupling arises, the coupling level being dependent on the line-to-resonator relative angular orientation. The line-to-resonator coupling level is the key parameter responsible for modulating the amplitude of the frequency response seen between the CPW ports in the vicinity of the S-SRR fundamental resonance frequency. Specifically, an amplitude notch that can be visualized in the transmission coefficient is changed by the coupling strength, and it is characterized as the sensing variable. Thus, the relative angular orientation between the two parts is measured, when the S-SRR is attached to a rotating object. It follows that the rotation angle and speed can be inferred either by measuring the frequency response of the S-SRR-loaded line, or the response amplitude at a fixed frequency in the vicinity of resonance. It is in addition shown that the angular velocity can be accurately determined from the time-domain response of a carrier time-harmonic signal tuned at the S-SRR resonance frequency. The main advantage of the proposed device is its small size directly related to the small electrical size of the S-SRR, which allows for the design of compact angular displacement and velocity sensors at low frequencies. Despite the small size of the fabricated proof-of-concept prototype (electrically small structures do not usually reject signals efficiently), it exhibits good linearity (on a logarithmic scale), sensitivity and dynamic range.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

CPW loaded with an S-SRR for (a) 90° and (b) 0° angular orientations, and (c) lossless transmission and reflection coefficients. The angular orientation between the CPW and the S-SRR is determined by the angle 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90°, where the S-SRR center is taken as the rotation axis crossing the CPW axis. CPW dimensions are: W = 2 mm and G = 0.78 mm (50-Ω line). S-SRR dimensions, as denoted in Figure 1, are: c = s = 0.2 mm and l1 = l2 = 10 mm. The substrate is Rogers RO3010 with thickness h = 1.27 mm and dielectric constant εr = 11.2.
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sensors-15-09628-f002: CPW loaded with an S-SRR for (a) 90° and (b) 0° angular orientations, and (c) lossless transmission and reflection coefficients. The angular orientation between the CPW and the S-SRR is determined by the angle 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90°, where the S-SRR center is taken as the rotation axis crossing the CPW axis. CPW dimensions are: W = 2 mm and G = 0.78 mm (50-Ω line). S-SRR dimensions, as denoted in Figure 1, are: c = s = 0.2 mm and l1 = l2 = 10 mm. The substrate is Rogers RO3010 with thickness h = 1.27 mm and dielectric constant εr = 11.2.

Mentions: Let us now consider a CPW transmission line loaded with an S-SRR for the two orthogonal and canonical S-SRR orientations, as represented in Figure 2a,b. For the 90° orientation (Figure 2a), the magnetic field lines generated by the line have opposite directions in the individual loops. Accordingly, the particle is excited, perturbing the transmission coefficient magnitude in the form of a transmission notch (or zero), as shown in Figure 2c. Conversely, for the 0° orientation (Figure 2b), even though the cancellation of magnetic field components inside the S-SRR loops is not total, there is in general a negligible net magnetic flux through the loops of the particle, and excitation at the fundamental resonance is prevented provided the particle is small in terms of wavelength. Therefore, the resonator is not coupled to the line for θ = 0°, whereas maximum coupling arises when θ = 90°. Between these two extreme situations, the frequency response undergoes a perturbation that depends on the coupling level, which in turn is determined by the angular orientation of the resonator. Regardless of the S-SRR orientation, the coupling mechanism between the particle and the CPW is magnetic (obviously with the exception of 0° where there is no effective coupling).


Angular Displacement and Velocity Sensors Based on Coplanar Waveguides (CPWs) Loaded with S-Shaped Split Ring Resonators (S-SRR).

Naqui J, Coromina J, Karami-Horestani A, Fumeaux C, Martín F - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

CPW loaded with an S-SRR for (a) 90° and (b) 0° angular orientations, and (c) lossless transmission and reflection coefficients. The angular orientation between the CPW and the S-SRR is determined by the angle 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90°, where the S-SRR center is taken as the rotation axis crossing the CPW axis. CPW dimensions are: W = 2 mm and G = 0.78 mm (50-Ω line). S-SRR dimensions, as denoted in Figure 1, are: c = s = 0.2 mm and l1 = l2 = 10 mm. The substrate is Rogers RO3010 with thickness h = 1.27 mm and dielectric constant εr = 11.2.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4481937&req=5

sensors-15-09628-f002: CPW loaded with an S-SRR for (a) 90° and (b) 0° angular orientations, and (c) lossless transmission and reflection coefficients. The angular orientation between the CPW and the S-SRR is determined by the angle 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90°, where the S-SRR center is taken as the rotation axis crossing the CPW axis. CPW dimensions are: W = 2 mm and G = 0.78 mm (50-Ω line). S-SRR dimensions, as denoted in Figure 1, are: c = s = 0.2 mm and l1 = l2 = 10 mm. The substrate is Rogers RO3010 with thickness h = 1.27 mm and dielectric constant εr = 11.2.
Mentions: Let us now consider a CPW transmission line loaded with an S-SRR for the two orthogonal and canonical S-SRR orientations, as represented in Figure 2a,b. For the 90° orientation (Figure 2a), the magnetic field lines generated by the line have opposite directions in the individual loops. Accordingly, the particle is excited, perturbing the transmission coefficient magnitude in the form of a transmission notch (or zero), as shown in Figure 2c. Conversely, for the 0° orientation (Figure 2b), even though the cancellation of magnetic field components inside the S-SRR loops is not total, there is in general a negligible net magnetic flux through the loops of the particle, and excitation at the fundamental resonance is prevented provided the particle is small in terms of wavelength. Therefore, the resonator is not coupled to the line for θ = 0°, whereas maximum coupling arises when θ = 90°. Between these two extreme situations, the frequency response undergoes a perturbation that depends on the coupling level, which in turn is determined by the angular orientation of the resonator. Regardless of the S-SRR orientation, the coupling mechanism between the particle and the CPW is magnetic (obviously with the exception of 0° where there is no effective coupling).

Bottom Line: It follows that the rotation angle and speed can be inferred either by measuring the frequency response of the S-SRR-loaded line, or the response amplitude at a fixed frequency in the vicinity of resonance.It is in addition shown that the angular velocity can be accurately determined from the time-domain response of a carrier time-harmonic signal tuned at the S-SRR resonance frequency.Despite the small size of the fabricated proof-of-concept prototype (electrically small structures do not usually reject signals efficiently), it exhibits good linearity (on a logarithmic scale), sensitivity and dynamic range.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CIMITEC, Departament d'Enginyeria Electrònica, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain. Jordi.Naqui@uab.cat.

ABSTRACT
In this paper, angular displacement and angular velocity sensors based on coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission lines and S-shaped split ring resonators (S-SRRs) are presented. The sensor consists of two parts, namely a CPW and an S-SRR, both lying on parallel planes. By this means, line-to-resonator magnetic coupling arises, the coupling level being dependent on the line-to-resonator relative angular orientation. The line-to-resonator coupling level is the key parameter responsible for modulating the amplitude of the frequency response seen between the CPW ports in the vicinity of the S-SRR fundamental resonance frequency. Specifically, an amplitude notch that can be visualized in the transmission coefficient is changed by the coupling strength, and it is characterized as the sensing variable. Thus, the relative angular orientation between the two parts is measured, when the S-SRR is attached to a rotating object. It follows that the rotation angle and speed can be inferred either by measuring the frequency response of the S-SRR-loaded line, or the response amplitude at a fixed frequency in the vicinity of resonance. It is in addition shown that the angular velocity can be accurately determined from the time-domain response of a carrier time-harmonic signal tuned at the S-SRR resonance frequency. The main advantage of the proposed device is its small size directly related to the small electrical size of the S-SRR, which allows for the design of compact angular displacement and velocity sensors at low frequencies. Despite the small size of the fabricated proof-of-concept prototype (electrically small structures do not usually reject signals efficiently), it exhibits good linearity (on a logarithmic scale), sensitivity and dynamic range.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus