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Tidal volume estimation using the blanket fractal dimension of the tracheal sounds acquired by smartphone.

Reljin N, Reyes BA, Chon KH - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: The results show that the BFD outperformed the SE (at least twice smaller NRMSE was obtained).The smallest NRMSE error of 15.877% ± 9.246% (mean ± standard deviation) was obtained with the BFD and exponential model.In addition, it was shown that the fitting curves calculated during the first day of experiments could be successfully used for at least the five following days.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Connecticut, 260 Glenbrook Road, Storrs, CT 06269, USA. reljin@engr.uconn.edu.

ABSTRACT
In this paper, we propose the use of blanket fractal dimension (BFD) to estimate the tidal volume from smartphone-acquired tracheal sounds. We collected tracheal sounds with a Samsung Galaxy S4 smartphone, from five (N = 5) healthy volunteers. Each volunteer performed the experiment six times; first to obtain linear and exponential fitting models, and then to fit new data onto the existing models. Thus, the total number of recordings was 30. The estimated volumes were compared to the true values, obtained with a Respitrace system, which was considered as a reference. Since Shannon entropy (SE) is frequently used as a feature in tracheal sound analyses, we estimated the tidal volume from the same sounds by using SE as well. The evaluation of the performed estimation, using BFD and SE methods, was quantified by the normalized root-mean-squared error (NRMSE). The results show that the BFD outperformed the SE (at least twice smaller NRMSE was obtained). The smallest NRMSE error of 15.877% ± 9.246% (mean ± standard deviation) was obtained with the BFD and exponential model. In addition, it was shown that the fitting curves calculated during the first day of experiments could be successfully used for at least the five following days.

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Bland-Altman plot for BFD feature with the exponential model, for expiratory phase, while the participants (N = 5) were breathing without a tube during the first day of experiments. (a) The regression plot: The unitary line is shown as gray dashed line, while the regression line is represented as black solid line; (b) Bland-Altman plot: The bias is represented as a solid black line and the 95% limits of agreement as gray dashed lines.
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sensors-15-09773-f008: Bland-Altman plot for BFD feature with the exponential model, for expiratory phase, while the participants (N = 5) were breathing without a tube during the first day of experiments. (a) The regression plot: The unitary line is shown as gray dashed line, while the regression line is represented as black solid line; (b) Bland-Altman plot: The bias is represented as a solid black line and the 95% limits of agreement as gray dashed lines.

Mentions: The smallest NRMSE error, with mean and standard deviation of 15.877% ± 9.246%, was obtained during the first day of experiments (training), when BFD feature with the exponential model was used, for expiratory phase, while the participants were breathing without a tube, Figure 7b. The Bland-Altman analysis showed a bias and standard deviation of 0.0226 ± 0.0918 L, and the corresponding results are presented in Figure 8.


Tidal volume estimation using the blanket fractal dimension of the tracheal sounds acquired by smartphone.

Reljin N, Reyes BA, Chon KH - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Bland-Altman plot for BFD feature with the exponential model, for expiratory phase, while the participants (N = 5) were breathing without a tube during the first day of experiments. (a) The regression plot: The unitary line is shown as gray dashed line, while the regression line is represented as black solid line; (b) Bland-Altman plot: The bias is represented as a solid black line and the 95% limits of agreement as gray dashed lines.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4481932&req=5

sensors-15-09773-f008: Bland-Altman plot for BFD feature with the exponential model, for expiratory phase, while the participants (N = 5) were breathing without a tube during the first day of experiments. (a) The regression plot: The unitary line is shown as gray dashed line, while the regression line is represented as black solid line; (b) Bland-Altman plot: The bias is represented as a solid black line and the 95% limits of agreement as gray dashed lines.
Mentions: The smallest NRMSE error, with mean and standard deviation of 15.877% ± 9.246%, was obtained during the first day of experiments (training), when BFD feature with the exponential model was used, for expiratory phase, while the participants were breathing without a tube, Figure 7b. The Bland-Altman analysis showed a bias and standard deviation of 0.0226 ± 0.0918 L, and the corresponding results are presented in Figure 8.

Bottom Line: The results show that the BFD outperformed the SE (at least twice smaller NRMSE was obtained).The smallest NRMSE error of 15.877% ± 9.246% (mean ± standard deviation) was obtained with the BFD and exponential model.In addition, it was shown that the fitting curves calculated during the first day of experiments could be successfully used for at least the five following days.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Connecticut, 260 Glenbrook Road, Storrs, CT 06269, USA. reljin@engr.uconn.edu.

ABSTRACT
In this paper, we propose the use of blanket fractal dimension (BFD) to estimate the tidal volume from smartphone-acquired tracheal sounds. We collected tracheal sounds with a Samsung Galaxy S4 smartphone, from five (N = 5) healthy volunteers. Each volunteer performed the experiment six times; first to obtain linear and exponential fitting models, and then to fit new data onto the existing models. Thus, the total number of recordings was 30. The estimated volumes were compared to the true values, obtained with a Respitrace system, which was considered as a reference. Since Shannon entropy (SE) is frequently used as a feature in tracheal sound analyses, we estimated the tidal volume from the same sounds by using SE as well. The evaluation of the performed estimation, using BFD and SE methods, was quantified by the normalized root-mean-squared error (NRMSE). The results show that the BFD outperformed the SE (at least twice smaller NRMSE was obtained). The smallest NRMSE error of 15.877% ± 9.246% (mean ± standard deviation) was obtained with the BFD and exponential model. In addition, it was shown that the fitting curves calculated during the first day of experiments could be successfully used for at least the five following days.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus