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Environmental enrichment and abstinence attenuate ketamine-induced cardiac and renal toxicity.

Li X, Li S, Zheng W, Pan J, Huang K, Chen R, Pan T, Liao G, Chen Z, Zhou D, Shen W, Zhou W, Liu Y - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: Two weeks of ketamine SA caused significant increases in organ weight, Apoptosis Stimulating Fragment/Kidney Injury Molecule-1, and apoptotic level of heart and kidney.The extended length of withdrawal from ketamine SA partially reduced toxicity on the heart and kidney.The interactive effect of EE and abstinence was promising to promote the recovery of cardiac and renal toxicity of ketamine.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Ningbo University School of Medicine, 818 Fenghua Road, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211, P. R. China.

ABSTRACT
The current study was designed to investigate the effect of abstinence in combination with environmental enrichment (EE) on cardiac and renal toxicity induced by 2 weeks of ketamine self-administration (SA) in rodents. In Experiment 1, one group of rats underwent ketamine SA for 14 days. In Experiment 2, the animals completed 2 weeks of ketamine SA followed by 2 and 4 weeks of abstinence. In Experiment 3, animals underwent 14 days of ketamine SA and 4 weeks of abstinence in which isolated environment (IE) and EE was introduced. The corresponding control groups were included for each experiment. Two weeks of ketamine SA caused significant increases in organ weight, Apoptosis Stimulating Fragment/Kidney Injury Molecule-1, and apoptotic level of heart and kidney. The extended length of withdrawal from ketamine SA partially reduced toxicity on the heart and kidney. Finally, introduction of EE during the period of abstinence greatly promoted the effect of abstinence on ketamine-induced cardiac and renal toxicity. The interactive effect of EE and abstinence was promising to promote the recovery of cardiac and renal toxicity of ketamine.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Time line for experimental design.IE: isolated environment; EE: enriched environment; W: week; D: days; H&E: Hematoxylin and Eosin Staining; IHC: Immunohistochemistry; TUNEL: Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling staining.
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f8: Time line for experimental design.IE: isolated environment; EE: enriched environment; W: week; D: days; H&E: Hematoxylin and Eosin Staining; IHC: Immunohistochemistry; TUNEL: Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling staining.

Mentions: Following approximately 5 days of recovery from surgery, rats were trained to SA ketamine as described previously6465. Briefly, a nose-poke response in the left (active) hole was immediately reinforced with an injection of 0.5 mg/kg/infusion ketamine. A nose-poke response in the right (inactive) hole was considered as an inactive response which had no programmed consequences. During the acquisition phase, the animals were allowed to self-administer ketamine (0.5 mg/kg/infusion) daily on a Fixed Ratio 1 (FR1) schedule for 4 hrs. After rats acquired stable ketamine SA behavior, animals were allowed 2 hrs daily to self-administer ketamine for 14 days. The experimental procedures are summarized in Fig. 8A.


Environmental enrichment and abstinence attenuate ketamine-induced cardiac and renal toxicity.

Li X, Li S, Zheng W, Pan J, Huang K, Chen R, Pan T, Liao G, Chen Z, Zhou D, Shen W, Zhou W, Liu Y - Sci Rep (2015)

Time line for experimental design.IE: isolated environment; EE: enriched environment; W: week; D: days; H&E: Hematoxylin and Eosin Staining; IHC: Immunohistochemistry; TUNEL: Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling staining.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4481381&req=5

f8: Time line for experimental design.IE: isolated environment; EE: enriched environment; W: week; D: days; H&E: Hematoxylin and Eosin Staining; IHC: Immunohistochemistry; TUNEL: Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling staining.
Mentions: Following approximately 5 days of recovery from surgery, rats were trained to SA ketamine as described previously6465. Briefly, a nose-poke response in the left (active) hole was immediately reinforced with an injection of 0.5 mg/kg/infusion ketamine. A nose-poke response in the right (inactive) hole was considered as an inactive response which had no programmed consequences. During the acquisition phase, the animals were allowed to self-administer ketamine (0.5 mg/kg/infusion) daily on a Fixed Ratio 1 (FR1) schedule for 4 hrs. After rats acquired stable ketamine SA behavior, animals were allowed 2 hrs daily to self-administer ketamine for 14 days. The experimental procedures are summarized in Fig. 8A.

Bottom Line: Two weeks of ketamine SA caused significant increases in organ weight, Apoptosis Stimulating Fragment/Kidney Injury Molecule-1, and apoptotic level of heart and kidney.The extended length of withdrawal from ketamine SA partially reduced toxicity on the heart and kidney.The interactive effect of EE and abstinence was promising to promote the recovery of cardiac and renal toxicity of ketamine.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Ningbo University School of Medicine, 818 Fenghua Road, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211, P. R. China.

ABSTRACT
The current study was designed to investigate the effect of abstinence in combination with environmental enrichment (EE) on cardiac and renal toxicity induced by 2 weeks of ketamine self-administration (SA) in rodents. In Experiment 1, one group of rats underwent ketamine SA for 14 days. In Experiment 2, the animals completed 2 weeks of ketamine SA followed by 2 and 4 weeks of abstinence. In Experiment 3, animals underwent 14 days of ketamine SA and 4 weeks of abstinence in which isolated environment (IE) and EE was introduced. The corresponding control groups were included for each experiment. Two weeks of ketamine SA caused significant increases in organ weight, Apoptosis Stimulating Fragment/Kidney Injury Molecule-1, and apoptotic level of heart and kidney. The extended length of withdrawal from ketamine SA partially reduced toxicity on the heart and kidney. Finally, introduction of EE during the period of abstinence greatly promoted the effect of abstinence on ketamine-induced cardiac and renal toxicity. The interactive effect of EE and abstinence was promising to promote the recovery of cardiac and renal toxicity of ketamine.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus