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Environmental enrichment and abstinence attenuate ketamine-induced cardiac and renal toxicity.

Li X, Li S, Zheng W, Pan J, Huang K, Chen R, Pan T, Liao G, Chen Z, Zhou D, Shen W, Zhou W, Liu Y - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: Two weeks of ketamine SA caused significant increases in organ weight, Apoptosis Stimulating Fragment/Kidney Injury Molecule-1, and apoptotic level of heart and kidney.The extended length of withdrawal from ketamine SA partially reduced toxicity on the heart and kidney.The interactive effect of EE and abstinence was promising to promote the recovery of cardiac and renal toxicity of ketamine.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Ningbo University School of Medicine, 818 Fenghua Road, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211, P. R. China.

ABSTRACT
The current study was designed to investigate the effect of abstinence in combination with environmental enrichment (EE) on cardiac and renal toxicity induced by 2 weeks of ketamine self-administration (SA) in rodents. In Experiment 1, one group of rats underwent ketamine SA for 14 days. In Experiment 2, the animals completed 2 weeks of ketamine SA followed by 2 and 4 weeks of abstinence. In Experiment 3, animals underwent 14 days of ketamine SA and 4 weeks of abstinence in which isolated environment (IE) and EE was introduced. The corresponding control groups were included for each experiment. Two weeks of ketamine SA caused significant increases in organ weight, Apoptosis Stimulating Fragment/Kidney Injury Molecule-1, and apoptotic level of heart and kidney. The extended length of withdrawal from ketamine SA partially reduced toxicity on the heart and kidney. Finally, introduction of EE during the period of abstinence greatly promoted the effect of abstinence on ketamine-induced cardiac and renal toxicity. The interactive effect of EE and abstinence was promising to promote the recovery of cardiac and renal toxicity of ketamine.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The effects of ketamine SA on hypertrophy of the rat heart and kidney.(A) The number of responses in the active (closed circle) and inactive (open circle) holes across 14 days of ketamine SA. (B) The number of infusions per session. (C) The heart weight and body weight ratio (HW/BW) of the control (left) and the Ketamine SA (right) groups. (D) The kidney weight and body weight ratio (KW/BW) of the control (left) and the Ketamine SA (right) groups. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. * *p < 0.01 HW: heart weight; KW: kidney weight; BW: body weight.
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f1: The effects of ketamine SA on hypertrophy of the rat heart and kidney.(A) The number of responses in the active (closed circle) and inactive (open circle) holes across 14 days of ketamine SA. (B) The number of infusions per session. (C) The heart weight and body weight ratio (HW/BW) of the control (left) and the Ketamine SA (right) groups. (D) The kidney weight and body weight ratio (KW/BW) of the control (left) and the Ketamine SA (right) groups. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. * *p < 0.01 HW: heart weight; KW: kidney weight; BW: body weight.

Mentions: Animals were allowed to self-administer ketamine through a choice of an active or inactive hole. Once the active hole was selected, the reinforcer (ketamine infusion) was delivered. A two-way ANOVA with repeated measurement indicated that the responses in the active hole were significantly higher than those in the inactive holes (F(1,223) = 1636.917, p < 0.01; Fig. 1A). The number of infusions per session was stable across 14 days of ketamine SA within each group (F(13,223) = 0.970, p = 0.670; Fig. 1B). There was no significant difference in the number of ketamine infusions between the Ketamine SA groups in different experiments.


Environmental enrichment and abstinence attenuate ketamine-induced cardiac and renal toxicity.

Li X, Li S, Zheng W, Pan J, Huang K, Chen R, Pan T, Liao G, Chen Z, Zhou D, Shen W, Zhou W, Liu Y - Sci Rep (2015)

The effects of ketamine SA on hypertrophy of the rat heart and kidney.(A) The number of responses in the active (closed circle) and inactive (open circle) holes across 14 days of ketamine SA. (B) The number of infusions per session. (C) The heart weight and body weight ratio (HW/BW) of the control (left) and the Ketamine SA (right) groups. (D) The kidney weight and body weight ratio (KW/BW) of the control (left) and the Ketamine SA (right) groups. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. * *p < 0.01 HW: heart weight; KW: kidney weight; BW: body weight.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4481381&req=5

f1: The effects of ketamine SA on hypertrophy of the rat heart and kidney.(A) The number of responses in the active (closed circle) and inactive (open circle) holes across 14 days of ketamine SA. (B) The number of infusions per session. (C) The heart weight and body weight ratio (HW/BW) of the control (left) and the Ketamine SA (right) groups. (D) The kidney weight and body weight ratio (KW/BW) of the control (left) and the Ketamine SA (right) groups. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. * *p < 0.01 HW: heart weight; KW: kidney weight; BW: body weight.
Mentions: Animals were allowed to self-administer ketamine through a choice of an active or inactive hole. Once the active hole was selected, the reinforcer (ketamine infusion) was delivered. A two-way ANOVA with repeated measurement indicated that the responses in the active hole were significantly higher than those in the inactive holes (F(1,223) = 1636.917, p < 0.01; Fig. 1A). The number of infusions per session was stable across 14 days of ketamine SA within each group (F(13,223) = 0.970, p = 0.670; Fig. 1B). There was no significant difference in the number of ketamine infusions between the Ketamine SA groups in different experiments.

Bottom Line: Two weeks of ketamine SA caused significant increases in organ weight, Apoptosis Stimulating Fragment/Kidney Injury Molecule-1, and apoptotic level of heart and kidney.The extended length of withdrawal from ketamine SA partially reduced toxicity on the heart and kidney.The interactive effect of EE and abstinence was promising to promote the recovery of cardiac and renal toxicity of ketamine.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Ningbo University School of Medicine, 818 Fenghua Road, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211, P. R. China.

ABSTRACT
The current study was designed to investigate the effect of abstinence in combination with environmental enrichment (EE) on cardiac and renal toxicity induced by 2 weeks of ketamine self-administration (SA) in rodents. In Experiment 1, one group of rats underwent ketamine SA for 14 days. In Experiment 2, the animals completed 2 weeks of ketamine SA followed by 2 and 4 weeks of abstinence. In Experiment 3, animals underwent 14 days of ketamine SA and 4 weeks of abstinence in which isolated environment (IE) and EE was introduced. The corresponding control groups were included for each experiment. Two weeks of ketamine SA caused significant increases in organ weight, Apoptosis Stimulating Fragment/Kidney Injury Molecule-1, and apoptotic level of heart and kidney. The extended length of withdrawal from ketamine SA partially reduced toxicity on the heart and kidney. Finally, introduction of EE during the period of abstinence greatly promoted the effect of abstinence on ketamine-induced cardiac and renal toxicity. The interactive effect of EE and abstinence was promising to promote the recovery of cardiac and renal toxicity of ketamine.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus