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Abnormalities in structural covariance of cortical gyrification in schizophrenia.

Palaniyappan L, Park B, Balain V, Dangi R, Liddle P - Brain Struct Funct (2014)

Bottom Line: Disturbances in these maturational events can result in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, resulting in abnormal patterns of morphological relationship among cortical structures (structural covariance).We found that several key regions including anterior insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex show increased segregation in schizophrenia, alongside reduced segregation in somato-sensory and occipital regions.The abnormal segregated folding pattern in the right peri-sylvian regions (insula and fronto-temporal cortex) was associated with greater severity of illness.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Psychiatry and Applied Psychology, University of Nottingham, Room-09, C Floor, Institute of Mental Health Building, Triumph Road, Nottingham, NG7 2TU, England, UK, lena.palaniyappan@nottingham.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
The highly convoluted shape of the adult human brain results from several well-coordinated maturational events that start from embryonic development and extend through the adult life span. Disturbances in these maturational events can result in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, resulting in abnormal patterns of morphological relationship among cortical structures (structural covariance). Structural covariance can be studied using graph theory-based approaches that evaluate topological properties of brain networks. Covariance-based graph metrics allow cross-sectional study of coordinated maturational relationship among brain regions. Disrupted gyrification of focal brain regions is a consistent feature of schizophrenia. However, it is unclear if these localized disturbances result from a failure of coordinated development of brain regions in schizophrenia. We studied the structural covariance of gyrification in a sample of 41 patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy controls by constructing gyrification-based networks using a 3-dimensional index. We found that several key regions including anterior insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex show increased segregation in schizophrenia, alongside reduced segregation in somato-sensory and occipital regions. Patients also showed a lack of prominence of the distributed covariance (hubness) of cingulate cortex. The abnormal segregated folding pattern in the right peri-sylvian regions (insula and fronto-temporal cortex) was associated with greater severity of illness. The study of structural covariance in cortical folding supports the presence of subtle deviation in the coordinated development of cortical convolutions in schizophrenia. The heterogeneity in the severity of schizophrenia could be explained in part by aberrant trajectories of neurodevelopment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Regional changes in topological properties of the gyrification network. A colour figure is provided online. Middle frontal and short insula show increased segregation in patients with schizophrenia (increased in local efficiency/clustering coefficient). Inferior temporal, intraparietal and posterior midcingulate show decreased degree centrality in schizophrenia. All other labelled regions show reduced segregation in patients with schizophrenia. L left hemisphere, R right hemisphere, G gyrus, S sulcus
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Fig2: Regional changes in topological properties of the gyrification network. A colour figure is provided online. Middle frontal and short insula show increased segregation in patients with schizophrenia (increased in local efficiency/clustering coefficient). Inferior temporal, intraparietal and posterior midcingulate show decreased degree centrality in schizophrenia. All other labelled regions show reduced segregation in patients with schizophrenia. L left hemisphere, R right hemisphere, G gyrus, S sulcus

Mentions: Both CON and SCZ networks showed small-worldness (mean SWI across densities for CON = 1.82; SCZ = 1.83). The overall segregation and integration measures of the two networks were not significantly different (Table 2) but comparison of individual nodal properties (Table 3) revealed significantly increased clustering coefficient for right anterior insula and reduced clustering coefficient for several regions in the right occipital cortex and bilateral central sulcus in SCZ compared to CON. Left posterior cingulate gyrus also showed reduced clustering in SCZ. Local efficiency was significantly increased for right middle frontal gyrus, and reduced in bilateral central and postcentral sulcus for SCZ compared to CON. These results are summarized in Fig. 2. In CON, all of the 5 hub regions were located in the anterior cingulate cortex; while in SCZ no nodes had degree centrality that satisfied the criteria for hubs (>2 SD of the mean).Table 2


Abnormalities in structural covariance of cortical gyrification in schizophrenia.

Palaniyappan L, Park B, Balain V, Dangi R, Liddle P - Brain Struct Funct (2014)

Regional changes in topological properties of the gyrification network. A colour figure is provided online. Middle frontal and short insula show increased segregation in patients with schizophrenia (increased in local efficiency/clustering coefficient). Inferior temporal, intraparietal and posterior midcingulate show decreased degree centrality in schizophrenia. All other labelled regions show reduced segregation in patients with schizophrenia. L left hemisphere, R right hemisphere, G gyrus, S sulcus
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4481329&req=5

Fig2: Regional changes in topological properties of the gyrification network. A colour figure is provided online. Middle frontal and short insula show increased segregation in patients with schizophrenia (increased in local efficiency/clustering coefficient). Inferior temporal, intraparietal and posterior midcingulate show decreased degree centrality in schizophrenia. All other labelled regions show reduced segregation in patients with schizophrenia. L left hemisphere, R right hemisphere, G gyrus, S sulcus
Mentions: Both CON and SCZ networks showed small-worldness (mean SWI across densities for CON = 1.82; SCZ = 1.83). The overall segregation and integration measures of the two networks were not significantly different (Table 2) but comparison of individual nodal properties (Table 3) revealed significantly increased clustering coefficient for right anterior insula and reduced clustering coefficient for several regions in the right occipital cortex and bilateral central sulcus in SCZ compared to CON. Left posterior cingulate gyrus also showed reduced clustering in SCZ. Local efficiency was significantly increased for right middle frontal gyrus, and reduced in bilateral central and postcentral sulcus for SCZ compared to CON. These results are summarized in Fig. 2. In CON, all of the 5 hub regions were located in the anterior cingulate cortex; while in SCZ no nodes had degree centrality that satisfied the criteria for hubs (>2 SD of the mean).Table 2

Bottom Line: Disturbances in these maturational events can result in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, resulting in abnormal patterns of morphological relationship among cortical structures (structural covariance).We found that several key regions including anterior insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex show increased segregation in schizophrenia, alongside reduced segregation in somato-sensory and occipital regions.The abnormal segregated folding pattern in the right peri-sylvian regions (insula and fronto-temporal cortex) was associated with greater severity of illness.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Psychiatry and Applied Psychology, University of Nottingham, Room-09, C Floor, Institute of Mental Health Building, Triumph Road, Nottingham, NG7 2TU, England, UK, lena.palaniyappan@nottingham.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
The highly convoluted shape of the adult human brain results from several well-coordinated maturational events that start from embryonic development and extend through the adult life span. Disturbances in these maturational events can result in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, resulting in abnormal patterns of morphological relationship among cortical structures (structural covariance). Structural covariance can be studied using graph theory-based approaches that evaluate topological properties of brain networks. Covariance-based graph metrics allow cross-sectional study of coordinated maturational relationship among brain regions. Disrupted gyrification of focal brain regions is a consistent feature of schizophrenia. However, it is unclear if these localized disturbances result from a failure of coordinated development of brain regions in schizophrenia. We studied the structural covariance of gyrification in a sample of 41 patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy controls by constructing gyrification-based networks using a 3-dimensional index. We found that several key regions including anterior insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex show increased segregation in schizophrenia, alongside reduced segregation in somato-sensory and occipital regions. Patients also showed a lack of prominence of the distributed covariance (hubness) of cingulate cortex. The abnormal segregated folding pattern in the right peri-sylvian regions (insula and fronto-temporal cortex) was associated with greater severity of illness. The study of structural covariance in cortical folding supports the presence of subtle deviation in the coordinated development of cortical convolutions in schizophrenia. The heterogeneity in the severity of schizophrenia could be explained in part by aberrant trajectories of neurodevelopment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus