Limits...
Variation in the X-linked EFHC2 gene is associated with social cognitive abilities in males.

Startin CM, Fiorentini C, de Haan M, Skuse DH - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Functional variations in X-linked genes are therefore likely to impact more on males than females.As predicted, males possessing the G allele had significantly poorer facial fear detection accuracy and theory of mind abilities than males possessing the A allele (with SNP variant accounting for up to 4.6% of variance).Variation in the X-linked EFHC2 gene at SNP rs7055196 is therefore associated with social cognitive abilities in males.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Females outperform males on many social cognitive tasks. X-linked genes may contribute to this sex difference. Males possess one X chromosome, while females possess two X chromosomes. Functional variations in X-linked genes are therefore likely to impact more on males than females. Previous studies of X-monosomic women with Turner syndrome suggest a genetic association with facial fear recognition abilities at Xp11.3, specifically at a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs7055196) within the EFHC2 gene. Based on a strong hypothesis, we investigated an association between variation at SNP rs7055196 and facial fear recognition and theory of mind abilities in males. As predicted, males possessing the G allele had significantly poorer facial fear detection accuracy and theory of mind abilities than males possessing the A allele (with SNP variant accounting for up to 4.6% of variance). Variation in the X-linked EFHC2 gene at SNP rs7055196 is therefore associated with social cognitive abilities in males.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Examples of images displaying the ranked faces morphed between a neutral and a fearful expression.Faces shown contain 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% fear (images adapted from Fiorentini and Viviani [33, 34]). Reprinted from Fiorentini and Viviani [34] under a CC BY license, with permission from C Fiorentini, original copyright 2011.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4481314&req=5

pone.0131604.g001: Examples of images displaying the ranked faces morphed between a neutral and a fearful expression.Faces shown contain 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% fear (images adapted from Fiorentini and Viviani [33, 34]). Reprinted from Fiorentini and Viviani [34] under a CC BY license, with permission from C Fiorentini, original copyright 2011.

Mentions: Participants were next administered a task to determine their fear detection sensitivity using a series of faces containing varying intensities of a fearful expression. Faces were produced by morphing together fearful and neutral prototypical faces posed by an actor (prototypical faces obtained from Fiorentini and Viviani [33, 34]), with the resultant faces containing different proportions of the fearful and neutral expressions. Participants were required to decide whether they thought each expression looked more like the prototypical fearful or the neutral expression in a two-alternative forced choice task. Nine equally spaced morphs were created between the two prototypical faces using LOKI software [35], producing ranked faces containing differing amounts of the fearful expression from 0% fear to 100% fear with incremental steps of 10% fear (Fig 1). This gave 11 ranked faces; nine composite faces plus the fearful and neutral prototypical faces (for further details see Fiorentini and Viviani [33]). Each ranked face was shown 10 times, giving a total of 110 trials. Images were presented in a random order, with the constraint that the same face was not shown twice in a row. No feedback was given for any image. The task was run using purpose written software.


Variation in the X-linked EFHC2 gene is associated with social cognitive abilities in males.

Startin CM, Fiorentini C, de Haan M, Skuse DH - PLoS ONE (2015)

Examples of images displaying the ranked faces morphed between a neutral and a fearful expression.Faces shown contain 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% fear (images adapted from Fiorentini and Viviani [33, 34]). Reprinted from Fiorentini and Viviani [34] under a CC BY license, with permission from C Fiorentini, original copyright 2011.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4481314&req=5

pone.0131604.g001: Examples of images displaying the ranked faces morphed between a neutral and a fearful expression.Faces shown contain 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% fear (images adapted from Fiorentini and Viviani [33, 34]). Reprinted from Fiorentini and Viviani [34] under a CC BY license, with permission from C Fiorentini, original copyright 2011.
Mentions: Participants were next administered a task to determine their fear detection sensitivity using a series of faces containing varying intensities of a fearful expression. Faces were produced by morphing together fearful and neutral prototypical faces posed by an actor (prototypical faces obtained from Fiorentini and Viviani [33, 34]), with the resultant faces containing different proportions of the fearful and neutral expressions. Participants were required to decide whether they thought each expression looked more like the prototypical fearful or the neutral expression in a two-alternative forced choice task. Nine equally spaced morphs were created between the two prototypical faces using LOKI software [35], producing ranked faces containing differing amounts of the fearful expression from 0% fear to 100% fear with incremental steps of 10% fear (Fig 1). This gave 11 ranked faces; nine composite faces plus the fearful and neutral prototypical faces (for further details see Fiorentini and Viviani [33]). Each ranked face was shown 10 times, giving a total of 110 trials. Images were presented in a random order, with the constraint that the same face was not shown twice in a row. No feedback was given for any image. The task was run using purpose written software.

Bottom Line: Functional variations in X-linked genes are therefore likely to impact more on males than females.As predicted, males possessing the G allele had significantly poorer facial fear detection accuracy and theory of mind abilities than males possessing the A allele (with SNP variant accounting for up to 4.6% of variance).Variation in the X-linked EFHC2 gene at SNP rs7055196 is therefore associated with social cognitive abilities in males.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Females outperform males on many social cognitive tasks. X-linked genes may contribute to this sex difference. Males possess one X chromosome, while females possess two X chromosomes. Functional variations in X-linked genes are therefore likely to impact more on males than females. Previous studies of X-monosomic women with Turner syndrome suggest a genetic association with facial fear recognition abilities at Xp11.3, specifically at a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs7055196) within the EFHC2 gene. Based on a strong hypothesis, we investigated an association between variation at SNP rs7055196 and facial fear recognition and theory of mind abilities in males. As predicted, males possessing the G allele had significantly poorer facial fear detection accuracy and theory of mind abilities than males possessing the A allele (with SNP variant accounting for up to 4.6% of variance). Variation in the X-linked EFHC2 gene at SNP rs7055196 is therefore associated with social cognitive abilities in males.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus