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Greater accordance with the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension dietary pattern is associated with lower diet-related greenhouse gas production but higher dietary costs in the United Kingdom.

Monsivais P, Scarborough P, Lloyd T, Mizdrak A, Luben R, Mulligan AA, Wareham NJ, Woodcock J - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2015)

Bottom Line: Dietary GHGs were estimated with United Kingdom-specific data on carbon dioxide equivalents associated with commodities and foods.Greater accordance with the DASH dietary targets was associated with lower GHGs.Among the DASH food groups, GHGs were most strongly and positively associated with meat consumption and negatively with whole-grain consumption.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: UKCRC Centre for Diet and Activity Research, MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom; pm491@medschl.cam.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT

Background: The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is a proven way to prevent and control hypertension and other chronic disease. Because the DASH diet emphasizes plant-based foods, including vegetables and grains, adhering to this diet might also bring about environmental benefits, including lower associated production of greenhouse gases (GHGs).

Objective: The objective was to examine the interrelation between dietary accordance with the DASH diet and associated GHGs. A secondary aim was to examine the retail cost of diets by level of DASH accordance.

Design: In this cross-sectional study of adults aged 39-79 y from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk, United Kingdom cohort (n = 24,293), dietary intakes estimated from food-frequency questionnaires were analyzed for their accordance with the 8 DASH food and nutrient-based targets. Associations between DASH accordance, GHGs, and dietary costs were evaluated in regression analyses. Dietary GHGs were estimated with United Kingdom-specific data on carbon dioxide equivalents associated with commodities and foods. Dietary costs were estimated by using national food prices from a United Kingdom-based supermarket comparison website.

Results: Greater accordance with the DASH dietary targets was associated with lower GHGs. Diets in the highest quintile of accordance had a GHG impact of 5.60 compared with 6.71 kg carbon dioxide equivalents/d for least-accordant diets (P < 0.0001). Among the DASH food groups, GHGs were most strongly and positively associated with meat consumption and negatively with whole-grain consumption. In addition, higher accordance with the DASH diet was associated with higher dietary costs, with the mean cost of diets in the top quintile of DASH scores 18% higher than that of diets in the lowest quintile (P < 0.0001).

Conclusions: Promoting wider uptake of the DASH diet in the United Kingdom may improve population health and reduce diet-related GHGs. However, to make the DASH diet more accessible, food affordability, particularly for lower income groups, will have to be addressed.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Scatterplot illustrating the relation between estimated energy intake and estimated GHG impact, in kg of CO2eq/d. Sample n = 24,293 men and women. For clarity, the vertical axis is capped at 20 kg CO2eq/d, excluding from the figure 25 cases with GHG estimates ranging from 20.3 to 48.5 kg/d. Least squares regression line forced through the origin, P < 0.0001. CO2eq, carbon dioxide equivalents; GHG, greenhouse gas.
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fig1: Scatterplot illustrating the relation between estimated energy intake and estimated GHG impact, in kg of CO2eq/d. Sample n = 24,293 men and women. For clarity, the vertical axis is capped at 20 kg CO2eq/d, excluding from the figure 25 cases with GHG estimates ranging from 20.3 to 48.5 kg/d. Least squares regression line forced through the origin, P < 0.0001. CO2eq, carbon dioxide equivalents; GHG, greenhouse gas.

Mentions: Dietary GHG emissions in this sample, estimated in kg of CO2eq, followed a log-normal distribution. The mean ± SD estimated crude GHG impact of diets was 6.3 ± 2.5 kg CO2eq/d, with the diets of women having a lower impact than those of men (5.9 ± 2.2 vs. 6.7 ± 2.6 kg/d, respectively). Differences between women and men were partly driven by differences in energy intake. The scatterplot in Figure 1 illustrates that, although GHG impact was positively associated with total reported energy intake, GHG impact varied substantially at any level of intake. For instance, at 2000 kcal, emissions ranged from ∼2 kg to >12 kg CO2eq/d. The slope of a least squares linear regression line indicated a mean increase of 3 kg CO2eq/1000 kcal of dietary energy.


Greater accordance with the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension dietary pattern is associated with lower diet-related greenhouse gas production but higher dietary costs in the United Kingdom.

Monsivais P, Scarborough P, Lloyd T, Mizdrak A, Luben R, Mulligan AA, Wareham NJ, Woodcock J - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2015)

Scatterplot illustrating the relation between estimated energy intake and estimated GHG impact, in kg of CO2eq/d. Sample n = 24,293 men and women. For clarity, the vertical axis is capped at 20 kg CO2eq/d, excluding from the figure 25 cases with GHG estimates ranging from 20.3 to 48.5 kg/d. Least squares regression line forced through the origin, P < 0.0001. CO2eq, carbon dioxide equivalents; GHG, greenhouse gas.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4480663&req=5

fig1: Scatterplot illustrating the relation between estimated energy intake and estimated GHG impact, in kg of CO2eq/d. Sample n = 24,293 men and women. For clarity, the vertical axis is capped at 20 kg CO2eq/d, excluding from the figure 25 cases with GHG estimates ranging from 20.3 to 48.5 kg/d. Least squares regression line forced through the origin, P < 0.0001. CO2eq, carbon dioxide equivalents; GHG, greenhouse gas.
Mentions: Dietary GHG emissions in this sample, estimated in kg of CO2eq, followed a log-normal distribution. The mean ± SD estimated crude GHG impact of diets was 6.3 ± 2.5 kg CO2eq/d, with the diets of women having a lower impact than those of men (5.9 ± 2.2 vs. 6.7 ± 2.6 kg/d, respectively). Differences between women and men were partly driven by differences in energy intake. The scatterplot in Figure 1 illustrates that, although GHG impact was positively associated with total reported energy intake, GHG impact varied substantially at any level of intake. For instance, at 2000 kcal, emissions ranged from ∼2 kg to >12 kg CO2eq/d. The slope of a least squares linear regression line indicated a mean increase of 3 kg CO2eq/1000 kcal of dietary energy.

Bottom Line: Dietary GHGs were estimated with United Kingdom-specific data on carbon dioxide equivalents associated with commodities and foods.Greater accordance with the DASH dietary targets was associated with lower GHGs.Among the DASH food groups, GHGs were most strongly and positively associated with meat consumption and negatively with whole-grain consumption.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: UKCRC Centre for Diet and Activity Research, MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom; pm491@medschl.cam.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT

Background: The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is a proven way to prevent and control hypertension and other chronic disease. Because the DASH diet emphasizes plant-based foods, including vegetables and grains, adhering to this diet might also bring about environmental benefits, including lower associated production of greenhouse gases (GHGs).

Objective: The objective was to examine the interrelation between dietary accordance with the DASH diet and associated GHGs. A secondary aim was to examine the retail cost of diets by level of DASH accordance.

Design: In this cross-sectional study of adults aged 39-79 y from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk, United Kingdom cohort (n = 24,293), dietary intakes estimated from food-frequency questionnaires were analyzed for their accordance with the 8 DASH food and nutrient-based targets. Associations between DASH accordance, GHGs, and dietary costs were evaluated in regression analyses. Dietary GHGs were estimated with United Kingdom-specific data on carbon dioxide equivalents associated with commodities and foods. Dietary costs were estimated by using national food prices from a United Kingdom-based supermarket comparison website.

Results: Greater accordance with the DASH dietary targets was associated with lower GHGs. Diets in the highest quintile of accordance had a GHG impact of 5.60 compared with 6.71 kg carbon dioxide equivalents/d for least-accordant diets (P < 0.0001). Among the DASH food groups, GHGs were most strongly and positively associated with meat consumption and negatively with whole-grain consumption. In addition, higher accordance with the DASH diet was associated with higher dietary costs, with the mean cost of diets in the top quintile of DASH scores 18% higher than that of diets in the lowest quintile (P < 0.0001).

Conclusions: Promoting wider uptake of the DASH diet in the United Kingdom may improve population health and reduce diet-related GHGs. However, to make the DASH diet more accessible, food affordability, particularly for lower income groups, will have to be addressed.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus