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Programmable wireless light-emitting diode stimulator for chronic stimulation of optogenetic molecules in freely moving mice.

Hashimoto M, Hata A, Miyata T, Hirase H - Neurophotonics (2014)

Bottom Line: Individual LED photopulse patterns are assigned to different codes of the IR signals (up to 256 codes).The photopulse patterns can be programmed in the on-board microcontroller by specifying the parameters of duration ([Formula: see text]), frequency ([Formula: see text]), and pulse width ([Formula: see text]).IR transmitter and LED stimulator will be particularly useful in experiments where free movement or patterned concurrent stimulation is desired, such as testing social communication of rodents.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine , Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi 466-8550, Japan.

ABSTRACT
We produced a miniaturized, multicode, multiband, and programmable light-emitting diode (LED) stimulator for wireless control of optogenetic experiments. The LED stimulator is capable of driving three independent LEDs upon reception of an infrared (IR) signal generated by a custom-made IR transmitter. Individual LED photopulse patterns are assigned to different codes of the IR signals (up to 256 codes). The photopulse patterns can be programmed in the on-board microcontroller by specifying the parameters of duration ([Formula: see text]), frequency ([Formula: see text]), and pulse width ([Formula: see text]). The IR signals were modulated at multiple carrier frequencies to establish multiband IR transmission. Using these devices, we could remotely control the moving direction of a Thy1-ChR2-YFP transgenic mouse by transcranially illuminating the corresponding hemisphere of the primary motor cortex. IR transmitter and LED stimulator will be particularly useful in experiments where free movement or patterned concurrent stimulation is desired, such as testing social communication of rodents.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic diagram of the wireless LED-stimulating system. When a TTL trigger signal is presented to a channel on the IR transmitter (e.g., Ch.3), the microcontroller generates a train of pulses composed of a leader code, unique eight-bit binary code for the channel (e.g., Ch.3, 00001111), and stop bit. The train of pulses is encoded with amplitude shift keying at a carrier frequency of 38 kHz and IR transmission is made accordingly. The transmitted IR photopulses are received and decoded by the IR receiver on the LED stimulator. The decoded signal is processed into 8-bit binary code by the microcontroller on the LED stimulator. Next, the microcontroller reads out an LED number (LED1 to 3) and pulse pattern, including duration, frequency, and pulse width, according to the 8-bit binary code. Finally, the LED generates photopulses according to the pulse pattern. The pulse pattern of each LED can be defined by specifying the duration (), frequency (), and pulse width () in the program installed in the microcontroller of the LED stimulator.
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f2: Schematic diagram of the wireless LED-stimulating system. When a TTL trigger signal is presented to a channel on the IR transmitter (e.g., Ch.3), the microcontroller generates a train of pulses composed of a leader code, unique eight-bit binary code for the channel (e.g., Ch.3, 00001111), and stop bit. The train of pulses is encoded with amplitude shift keying at a carrier frequency of 38 kHz and IR transmission is made accordingly. The transmitted IR photopulses are received and decoded by the IR receiver on the LED stimulator. The decoded signal is processed into 8-bit binary code by the microcontroller on the LED stimulator. Next, the microcontroller reads out an LED number (LED1 to 3) and pulse pattern, including duration, frequency, and pulse width, according to the 8-bit binary code. Finally, the LED generates photopulses according to the pulse pattern. The pulse pattern of each LED can be defined by specifying the duration (), frequency (), and pulse width () in the program installed in the microcontroller of the LED stimulator.

Mentions: The IR transmitter has four channels for an external TTL input (Fig. 1, Ch.1 to Ch.4). When the channel is activated, the microcontroller generates a train of pulses, which is based on the NEC format for IR remote controllers (http://www.vishay.com/docs/80071/dataform.pdf). Briefly, the IR transmission code consists of a leader code (9 ms On followed by 4.5 ms Off signal), an 8-bit binary code (e.g., Ch.3, 00001111; 0 is coded 0.55 ms On followed by 0.55 ms Off, 1 is coded by 0.55 ms On followed by 1.65 ms Off), and a stop bit (0.55 ms On followed by 0.55 ms Off) (Fig. 2). Each channel of the IR transmitter is identified with a unique 8-bit binary code (e.g., Ch.1, 00001101; Ch.2, 00001110; Ch.3, 00001111; Ch.4, 00011100). The 256 patterns of the 8-bit binary code (00000000 to 11111111) are available for each channel. The 8-bit binary code of each channel is defined by the program installed in the microcontroller of the IR transmitter. Multiple IR transmitters can be used without crosstalk between the channels by assigning a unique 8-bit binary code to each channel (e.g., Ch.1, 00001101; Ch.2, 00001110; Ch.3, 00001111; Ch.4, 00011100; Ch.5, 00011101; Ch.6, 00011110; Ch.7, 00011111; Ch.8, 00000100). The IR transmission code is modulated at a carrier frequency of 38 kHz using amplitude shift keying to resist influence from environmental IR noise (Fig. 2). Furthermore, a carrier frequency of 30 or 56 kHz can be used to realize multiband IR transmission. The IR transmitter is powered by an ac adapter that provides dc 12 V.


Programmable wireless light-emitting diode stimulator for chronic stimulation of optogenetic molecules in freely moving mice.

Hashimoto M, Hata A, Miyata T, Hirase H - Neurophotonics (2014)

Schematic diagram of the wireless LED-stimulating system. When a TTL trigger signal is presented to a channel on the IR transmitter (e.g., Ch.3), the microcontroller generates a train of pulses composed of a leader code, unique eight-bit binary code for the channel (e.g., Ch.3, 00001111), and stop bit. The train of pulses is encoded with amplitude shift keying at a carrier frequency of 38 kHz and IR transmission is made accordingly. The transmitted IR photopulses are received and decoded by the IR receiver on the LED stimulator. The decoded signal is processed into 8-bit binary code by the microcontroller on the LED stimulator. Next, the microcontroller reads out an LED number (LED1 to 3) and pulse pattern, including duration, frequency, and pulse width, according to the 8-bit binary code. Finally, the LED generates photopulses according to the pulse pattern. The pulse pattern of each LED can be defined by specifying the duration (), frequency (), and pulse width () in the program installed in the microcontroller of the LED stimulator.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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f2: Schematic diagram of the wireless LED-stimulating system. When a TTL trigger signal is presented to a channel on the IR transmitter (e.g., Ch.3), the microcontroller generates a train of pulses composed of a leader code, unique eight-bit binary code for the channel (e.g., Ch.3, 00001111), and stop bit. The train of pulses is encoded with amplitude shift keying at a carrier frequency of 38 kHz and IR transmission is made accordingly. The transmitted IR photopulses are received and decoded by the IR receiver on the LED stimulator. The decoded signal is processed into 8-bit binary code by the microcontroller on the LED stimulator. Next, the microcontroller reads out an LED number (LED1 to 3) and pulse pattern, including duration, frequency, and pulse width, according to the 8-bit binary code. Finally, the LED generates photopulses according to the pulse pattern. The pulse pattern of each LED can be defined by specifying the duration (), frequency (), and pulse width () in the program installed in the microcontroller of the LED stimulator.
Mentions: The IR transmitter has four channels for an external TTL input (Fig. 1, Ch.1 to Ch.4). When the channel is activated, the microcontroller generates a train of pulses, which is based on the NEC format for IR remote controllers (http://www.vishay.com/docs/80071/dataform.pdf). Briefly, the IR transmission code consists of a leader code (9 ms On followed by 4.5 ms Off signal), an 8-bit binary code (e.g., Ch.3, 00001111; 0 is coded 0.55 ms On followed by 0.55 ms Off, 1 is coded by 0.55 ms On followed by 1.65 ms Off), and a stop bit (0.55 ms On followed by 0.55 ms Off) (Fig. 2). Each channel of the IR transmitter is identified with a unique 8-bit binary code (e.g., Ch.1, 00001101; Ch.2, 00001110; Ch.3, 00001111; Ch.4, 00011100). The 256 patterns of the 8-bit binary code (00000000 to 11111111) are available for each channel. The 8-bit binary code of each channel is defined by the program installed in the microcontroller of the IR transmitter. Multiple IR transmitters can be used without crosstalk between the channels by assigning a unique 8-bit binary code to each channel (e.g., Ch.1, 00001101; Ch.2, 00001110; Ch.3, 00001111; Ch.4, 00011100; Ch.5, 00011101; Ch.6, 00011110; Ch.7, 00011111; Ch.8, 00000100). The IR transmission code is modulated at a carrier frequency of 38 kHz using amplitude shift keying to resist influence from environmental IR noise (Fig. 2). Furthermore, a carrier frequency of 30 or 56 kHz can be used to realize multiband IR transmission. The IR transmitter is powered by an ac adapter that provides dc 12 V.

Bottom Line: Individual LED photopulse patterns are assigned to different codes of the IR signals (up to 256 codes).The photopulse patterns can be programmed in the on-board microcontroller by specifying the parameters of duration ([Formula: see text]), frequency ([Formula: see text]), and pulse width ([Formula: see text]).IR transmitter and LED stimulator will be particularly useful in experiments where free movement or patterned concurrent stimulation is desired, such as testing social communication of rodents.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine , Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi 466-8550, Japan.

ABSTRACT
We produced a miniaturized, multicode, multiband, and programmable light-emitting diode (LED) stimulator for wireless control of optogenetic experiments. The LED stimulator is capable of driving three independent LEDs upon reception of an infrared (IR) signal generated by a custom-made IR transmitter. Individual LED photopulse patterns are assigned to different codes of the IR signals (up to 256 codes). The photopulse patterns can be programmed in the on-board microcontroller by specifying the parameters of duration ([Formula: see text]), frequency ([Formula: see text]), and pulse width ([Formula: see text]). The IR signals were modulated at multiple carrier frequencies to establish multiband IR transmission. Using these devices, we could remotely control the moving direction of a Thy1-ChR2-YFP transgenic mouse by transcranially illuminating the corresponding hemisphere of the primary motor cortex. IR transmitter and LED stimulator will be particularly useful in experiments where free movement or patterned concurrent stimulation is desired, such as testing social communication of rodents.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus