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Color accuracy and reproducibility in whole slide imaging scanners.

Shrestha P, Hulsken B - J Med Imaging (Bellingham) (2014)

Bottom Line: The color accuracy, measured as DeltaE between the scanner reproduced colors and the reference colorimetric values of the phantom patches, is improved on average to 3.5 DeltaE in calibrated scanners from 10 DeltaE in uncalibrated scanners.The average inter-scanner color difference is found to be 1.2 DeltaE.The improvement in color performance upon using the proposed method is apparent with the visual color quality of the tissue scans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Philips Digital Pathology Solutions , Best 5684, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
We propose a workflow for color reproduction in whole slide imaging (WSI) scanners, such that the colors in the scanned images match to the actual slide color and the inter-scanner variation is minimum. We describe a new method of preparation and verification of the color phantom slide, consisting of a standard IT8-target transmissive film, which is used in color calibrating and profiling the WSI scanner. We explore several International Color Consortium (ICC) compliant techniques in color calibration/profiling and rendering intents for translating the scanner specific colors to the standard display (sRGB) color space. Based on the quality of the color reproduction in histopathology slides, we propose the matrix-based calibration/profiling and absolute colorimetric rendering approach. The main advantage of the proposed workflow is that it is compliant to the ICC standard, applicable to color management systems in different platforms, and involves no external color measurement devices. We quantify color difference using the CIE-DeltaE2000 metric, where DeltaE values below 1 are considered imperceptible. Our evaluation on 14 phantom slides, manufactured according to the proposed method, shows an average inter-slide color difference below 1 DeltaE. The proposed workflow is implemented and evaluated in 35 WSI scanners developed at Philips, called the Ultra Fast Scanners (UFS). The color accuracy, measured as DeltaE between the scanner reproduced colors and the reference colorimetric values of the phantom patches, is improved on average to 3.5 DeltaE in calibrated scanners from 10 DeltaE in uncalibrated scanners. The average inter-scanner color difference is found to be 1.2 DeltaE. The improvement in color performance upon using the proposed method is apparent with the visual color quality of the tissue scans.

No MeSH data available.


Mean DeltaE between the calibrated UFSs reproduced colors and reference colorimetric values, represented by “*”, across the 264 phantom slide patches. The error bar represents standard deviation in the mean DeltaE.
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f9: Mean DeltaE between the calibrated UFSs reproduced colors and reference colorimetric values, represented by “*”, across the 264 phantom slide patches. The error bar represents standard deviation in the mean DeltaE.

Mentions: The color accuracy test of 35 UFSs involved 9240 () comparisons. Compared to the uncalibrated UFSs where only three patches resulted in , the calibrated scanners resulted in 695 (7.5%) patches with a . The mean DeltaE across the patches per scanner is found to be in uncalibrated scanners, and in calibrated scanners. Figure 9 shows the means and standard deviations in DeltaE between the UFSs and reference colors across the patches. The mean DeltaE values across the scanners are not significantly different, and are mainly influenced by the stochastic noise behavior in dark patches.


Color accuracy and reproducibility in whole slide imaging scanners.

Shrestha P, Hulsken B - J Med Imaging (Bellingham) (2014)

Mean DeltaE between the calibrated UFSs reproduced colors and reference colorimetric values, represented by “*”, across the 264 phantom slide patches. The error bar represents standard deviation in the mean DeltaE.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4478790&req=5

f9: Mean DeltaE between the calibrated UFSs reproduced colors and reference colorimetric values, represented by “*”, across the 264 phantom slide patches. The error bar represents standard deviation in the mean DeltaE.
Mentions: The color accuracy test of 35 UFSs involved 9240 () comparisons. Compared to the uncalibrated UFSs where only three patches resulted in , the calibrated scanners resulted in 695 (7.5%) patches with a . The mean DeltaE across the patches per scanner is found to be in uncalibrated scanners, and in calibrated scanners. Figure 9 shows the means and standard deviations in DeltaE between the UFSs and reference colors across the patches. The mean DeltaE values across the scanners are not significantly different, and are mainly influenced by the stochastic noise behavior in dark patches.

Bottom Line: The color accuracy, measured as DeltaE between the scanner reproduced colors and the reference colorimetric values of the phantom patches, is improved on average to 3.5 DeltaE in calibrated scanners from 10 DeltaE in uncalibrated scanners.The average inter-scanner color difference is found to be 1.2 DeltaE.The improvement in color performance upon using the proposed method is apparent with the visual color quality of the tissue scans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Philips Digital Pathology Solutions , Best 5684, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
We propose a workflow for color reproduction in whole slide imaging (WSI) scanners, such that the colors in the scanned images match to the actual slide color and the inter-scanner variation is minimum. We describe a new method of preparation and verification of the color phantom slide, consisting of a standard IT8-target transmissive film, which is used in color calibrating and profiling the WSI scanner. We explore several International Color Consortium (ICC) compliant techniques in color calibration/profiling and rendering intents for translating the scanner specific colors to the standard display (sRGB) color space. Based on the quality of the color reproduction in histopathology slides, we propose the matrix-based calibration/profiling and absolute colorimetric rendering approach. The main advantage of the proposed workflow is that it is compliant to the ICC standard, applicable to color management systems in different platforms, and involves no external color measurement devices. We quantify color difference using the CIE-DeltaE2000 metric, where DeltaE values below 1 are considered imperceptible. Our evaluation on 14 phantom slides, manufactured according to the proposed method, shows an average inter-slide color difference below 1 DeltaE. The proposed workflow is implemented and evaluated in 35 WSI scanners developed at Philips, called the Ultra Fast Scanners (UFS). The color accuracy, measured as DeltaE between the scanner reproduced colors and the reference colorimetric values of the phantom patches, is improved on average to 3.5 DeltaE in calibrated scanners from 10 DeltaE in uncalibrated scanners. The average inter-scanner color difference is found to be 1.2 DeltaE. The improvement in color performance upon using the proposed method is apparent with the visual color quality of the tissue scans.

No MeSH data available.