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Single-cell imaging tools for brain energy metabolism: a review.

San Martín A, Sotelo-Hitschfeld T, Lerchundi R, Fernández-Moncada I, Ceballo S, Valdebenito R, Baeza-Lehnert F, Alegría K, Contreras-Baeza Y, Garrido-Gerter P, Romero-Gómez I, Barros LF - Neurophotonics (2014)

Bottom Line: We argue that metabolism needs to be approached both in vitro and in vivo, and that it does not just exist as a low-level platform but is also a relevant player in information processing.In recent years, genetically encoded fluorescent nanosensors have been introduced to measure glucose, glutamate, ATP, NADH, lactate, and pyruvate in mammalian cells.Reporting relative metabolite levels, absolute concentrations, and metabolic fluxes, these sensors are instrumental for the discovery of new molecular mechanisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro de Estudios Científicos , Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia, 5110466, Chile ; Universidad Austral de Chile , Valdivia, Chile.

ABSTRACT
Neurophotonics comes to light at a time in which advances in microscopy and improved calcium reporters are paving the way toward high-resolution functional mapping of the brain. This review relates to a parallel revolution in metabolism. We argue that metabolism needs to be approached both in vitro and in vivo, and that it does not just exist as a low-level platform but is also a relevant player in information processing. In recent years, genetically encoded fluorescent nanosensors have been introduced to measure glucose, glutamate, ATP, NADH, lactate, and pyruvate in mammalian cells. Reporting relative metabolite levels, absolute concentrations, and metabolic fluxes, these sensors are instrumental for the discovery of new molecular mechanisms. Sensors continue to be developed, which together with a continued improvement in protein expression strategies and new imaging technologies, herald an exciting era of high-resolution characterization of metabolism in the brain and other organs.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Mammalian metabolic networks. Schematic representation of mammalian metabolism. Points correspond to metabolites and lines to chemical transformations (from Alberts et al., 1983, cited in Ref. 129). The network location of the six metabolites that have been imaged in mammalian cells is indicated: glucose (glc), pyruvate (pyr), lactate (lac), glutamate (glu), NADH, and ATP.
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f3: Mammalian metabolic networks. Schematic representation of mammalian metabolism. Points correspond to metabolites and lines to chemical transformations (from Alberts et al., 1983, cited in Ref. 129). The network location of the six metabolites that have been imaged in mammalian cells is indicated: glucose (glc), pyruvate (pyr), lactate (lac), glutamate (glu), NADH, and ATP.

Mentions: Note: There are six metabolites for which there are optical nanosensors available that have been validated in mammalian cells. The position of these molecules in the metabolic network is indicated in Fig. 3.


Single-cell imaging tools for brain energy metabolism: a review.

San Martín A, Sotelo-Hitschfeld T, Lerchundi R, Fernández-Moncada I, Ceballo S, Valdebenito R, Baeza-Lehnert F, Alegría K, Contreras-Baeza Y, Garrido-Gerter P, Romero-Gómez I, Barros LF - Neurophotonics (2014)

Mammalian metabolic networks. Schematic representation of mammalian metabolism. Points correspond to metabolites and lines to chemical transformations (from Alberts et al., 1983, cited in Ref. 129). The network location of the six metabolites that have been imaged in mammalian cells is indicated: glucose (glc), pyruvate (pyr), lactate (lac), glutamate (glu), NADH, and ATP.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4478754&req=5

f3: Mammalian metabolic networks. Schematic representation of mammalian metabolism. Points correspond to metabolites and lines to chemical transformations (from Alberts et al., 1983, cited in Ref. 129). The network location of the six metabolites that have been imaged in mammalian cells is indicated: glucose (glc), pyruvate (pyr), lactate (lac), glutamate (glu), NADH, and ATP.
Mentions: Note: There are six metabolites for which there are optical nanosensors available that have been validated in mammalian cells. The position of these molecules in the metabolic network is indicated in Fig. 3.

Bottom Line: We argue that metabolism needs to be approached both in vitro and in vivo, and that it does not just exist as a low-level platform but is also a relevant player in information processing.In recent years, genetically encoded fluorescent nanosensors have been introduced to measure glucose, glutamate, ATP, NADH, lactate, and pyruvate in mammalian cells.Reporting relative metabolite levels, absolute concentrations, and metabolic fluxes, these sensors are instrumental for the discovery of new molecular mechanisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro de Estudios Científicos , Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia, 5110466, Chile ; Universidad Austral de Chile , Valdivia, Chile.

ABSTRACT
Neurophotonics comes to light at a time in which advances in microscopy and improved calcium reporters are paving the way toward high-resolution functional mapping of the brain. This review relates to a parallel revolution in metabolism. We argue that metabolism needs to be approached both in vitro and in vivo, and that it does not just exist as a low-level platform but is also a relevant player in information processing. In recent years, genetically encoded fluorescent nanosensors have been introduced to measure glucose, glutamate, ATP, NADH, lactate, and pyruvate in mammalian cells. Reporting relative metabolite levels, absolute concentrations, and metabolic fluxes, these sensors are instrumental for the discovery of new molecular mechanisms. Sensors continue to be developed, which together with a continued improvement in protein expression strategies and new imaging technologies, herald an exciting era of high-resolution characterization of metabolism in the brain and other organs.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus