Limits...
Modulation expression of tumor necrosis factor α in the radiation-induced lung injury by glycyrrhizic acid.

Refahi S, Pourissa M, Zirak MR, Hadadi G - J Med Phys (2015 Apr-Jun)

Bottom Line: The animals were divided into four groups: No treatment (NT group), GLA treatment only (GLA group), irradiation only (XRT group), and GLA treatment plus irradiation (GLA/XRT group).Rats were killed at different time points.In contrast to the XRT rats, the lungs of the GLA/XRT rats revealed a reduction on TNF-α protein level at 6 h after irradiation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran.

ABSTRACT
To evaluate the ability of glycyrrhizic acid (GLA) to reduce the tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), release on messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein production in the lungs using GLA in response to irradiation were studied. The animals were divided into four groups: No treatment (NT group), GLA treatment only (GLA group), irradiation only (XRT group), and GLA treatment plus irradiation (GLA/XRT group). Rats were killed at different time points. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to evaluate the mRNA expression of TNF-α in the lungs (compared with non-irradiated lungs). An enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) assay was used to measure the TNF-α protein level. The TNF-α mRNA expression in the lungs of the XRT rats was clearly higher at all-time points compared to the NT rats. The TNF-α mRNA expression in the lungs of the GLA/XRT rats was lower at all-time points compared to the XRT rats. Release of the TNF-α on protein level in the lungs of the XRT rats increased at all-time points compared to the NT rats. In contrast to the XRT rats, the lungs of the GLA/XRT rats revealed a reduction on TNF-α protein level at 6 h after irradiation. This study has clearly showed the immediate down-regulation of the TNF-α mRNA and protein production in the lungs using GLA in response to irradiation.

No MeSH data available.


Glycyrrhizic acid (GLA)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4478651&req=5

Figure 1: Glycyrrhizic acid (GLA)

Mentions: The use of radiotherapy inevitably inducts exposure of normal tissues. The pathological processes of radiation changes begin immediately post irradiation, but the pathological and clinical appearance may not become obvious for weeks, months, or even years after radiation.[1] The lung is a radiosensitive organ of body and therefore imports a problem for radiation exposures to the thoracic region.[2] The mechanisms involved in the radiation-induced lung damages remain incompletely understood; previous studies have shown a cyclic inflammatory response, related to inflammatory cells, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines as major factors in causing lung injuries.[3456] Lung injuries occur in two separate phase. Two to three months after irradiation, radiation pneumonitis can occur followed by radiation fibrosis 4 months to 1 year post irradiation.[7] Radiation has been reported to induce the production of biological mediators, such as cytokines, which modulate diverse aspects of pneumonitis and the fibrogenic response.[8910] Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is a key mediator for the pathogenesis of radiation pneumonitis because it shows the spectrum of biological activities. TNF-α exerts in pro-inflammatory effects by inducing the expression of adhesion molecules, and also it exerts fibrogenic effects by stimulation the growth of fibroblasts and increasing the collagen deposition.[11] Therefore, a pharmacological modification of the TNF-α production at the initial step could possibly halt the progress of radiation-induced damages. The growth of effective radioprotectors is the large topic in view of their use during radiation exposure.[12] Some plants and their bioactive constituents, display antioxidant, immunomodulating, and anti-inflammatory properties, and the radioprotective response in many cases is mediated by these effects.[1314] Root extracts of the plant Glycyrrhiza glabra L., known as Yashtimadhu, in Ayurveda have been used for healing different maladies because of its anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, and immune-modulating, and anti-bacterial activities.[15] The extract, called licorice, and the active compounds of the extract have been reported to have anti-oxidant, immuno-modulating, and free radical-scavenging activity.[161718] Component of the extract is glycyrrhizic acid (GLA, a triterpenoid saponin glycoside) [Figure 1], and in vivo and in vitro tests have shown that GLA is non-genotoxic.[19]


Modulation expression of tumor necrosis factor α in the radiation-induced lung injury by glycyrrhizic acid.

Refahi S, Pourissa M, Zirak MR, Hadadi G - J Med Phys (2015 Apr-Jun)

Glycyrrhizic acid (GLA)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4478651&req=5

Figure 1: Glycyrrhizic acid (GLA)
Mentions: The use of radiotherapy inevitably inducts exposure of normal tissues. The pathological processes of radiation changes begin immediately post irradiation, but the pathological and clinical appearance may not become obvious for weeks, months, or even years after radiation.[1] The lung is a radiosensitive organ of body and therefore imports a problem for radiation exposures to the thoracic region.[2] The mechanisms involved in the radiation-induced lung damages remain incompletely understood; previous studies have shown a cyclic inflammatory response, related to inflammatory cells, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines as major factors in causing lung injuries.[3456] Lung injuries occur in two separate phase. Two to three months after irradiation, radiation pneumonitis can occur followed by radiation fibrosis 4 months to 1 year post irradiation.[7] Radiation has been reported to induce the production of biological mediators, such as cytokines, which modulate diverse aspects of pneumonitis and the fibrogenic response.[8910] Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is a key mediator for the pathogenesis of radiation pneumonitis because it shows the spectrum of biological activities. TNF-α exerts in pro-inflammatory effects by inducing the expression of adhesion molecules, and also it exerts fibrogenic effects by stimulation the growth of fibroblasts and increasing the collagen deposition.[11] Therefore, a pharmacological modification of the TNF-α production at the initial step could possibly halt the progress of radiation-induced damages. The growth of effective radioprotectors is the large topic in view of their use during radiation exposure.[12] Some plants and their bioactive constituents, display antioxidant, immunomodulating, and anti-inflammatory properties, and the radioprotective response in many cases is mediated by these effects.[1314] Root extracts of the plant Glycyrrhiza glabra L., known as Yashtimadhu, in Ayurveda have been used for healing different maladies because of its anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, and immune-modulating, and anti-bacterial activities.[15] The extract, called licorice, and the active compounds of the extract have been reported to have anti-oxidant, immuno-modulating, and free radical-scavenging activity.[161718] Component of the extract is glycyrrhizic acid (GLA, a triterpenoid saponin glycoside) [Figure 1], and in vivo and in vitro tests have shown that GLA is non-genotoxic.[19]

Bottom Line: The animals were divided into four groups: No treatment (NT group), GLA treatment only (GLA group), irradiation only (XRT group), and GLA treatment plus irradiation (GLA/XRT group).Rats were killed at different time points.In contrast to the XRT rats, the lungs of the GLA/XRT rats revealed a reduction on TNF-α protein level at 6 h after irradiation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran.

ABSTRACT
To evaluate the ability of glycyrrhizic acid (GLA) to reduce the tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), release on messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein production in the lungs using GLA in response to irradiation were studied. The animals were divided into four groups: No treatment (NT group), GLA treatment only (GLA group), irradiation only (XRT group), and GLA treatment plus irradiation (GLA/XRT group). Rats were killed at different time points. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to evaluate the mRNA expression of TNF-α in the lungs (compared with non-irradiated lungs). An enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) assay was used to measure the TNF-α protein level. The TNF-α mRNA expression in the lungs of the XRT rats was clearly higher at all-time points compared to the NT rats. The TNF-α mRNA expression in the lungs of the GLA/XRT rats was lower at all-time points compared to the XRT rats. Release of the TNF-α on protein level in the lungs of the XRT rats increased at all-time points compared to the NT rats. In contrast to the XRT rats, the lungs of the GLA/XRT rats revealed a reduction on TNF-α protein level at 6 h after irradiation. This study has clearly showed the immediate down-regulation of the TNF-α mRNA and protein production in the lungs using GLA in response to irradiation.

No MeSH data available.