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Functional Analysis of Developmentally Regulated Genes chs7 and sec22 in the Ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

Traeger S, Nowrousian M - G3 (Bethesda) (2015)

Bottom Line: Deletion of sec22 resulted in a reduced number of ascospores and in defects in ascospore pigmentation and germination, whereas vegetative growth was normal in the mutant.Expression of several development-related genes was deregulated in the sec22 mutant, including three genes involved in melanin biosynthesis.Our data indicate that chs7 is dispensable for fruiting body formation in S. macrospora, whereas sec22 is required for ascospore maturation and germination and thus involved in late stages of sexual development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Lehrstuhl für Allgemeine und Molekulare Botanik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, 44780 Bochum, Germany.

No MeSH data available.


Phylogenetic analysis of chitin synthases from four ascomycetes. A multiple alignments was created with CLUSTALW (Thompson et al. 2002) and used for maximum likelihood analysis with MEGA5.10 (Tamura et al. 2011). Numbers at branches indicate bootstrap support in % for 1000 bootstrap replications. Classes and divisions are labeled according to Choquer et al. (2004) and Riquelme and Bartnicki-García (2008), respectively. The predicted S. macrospora Chitin synthases (CHS) proteins are encoded by genes with the following locus tag numbers in the genome sequence (Nowrousian et al. 2010): CHS1, SMAC_07828; CHS2, SMAC_07162; CHS3, SMAC_03109; CHS4, SMAC_02767; CHS5, SMAC_01800; CHS6, SMAC_01799; CHS7, SMAC_01722.
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fig1: Phylogenetic analysis of chitin synthases from four ascomycetes. A multiple alignments was created with CLUSTALW (Thompson et al. 2002) and used for maximum likelihood analysis with MEGA5.10 (Tamura et al. 2011). Numbers at branches indicate bootstrap support in % for 1000 bootstrap replications. Classes and divisions are labeled according to Choquer et al. (2004) and Riquelme and Bartnicki-García (2008), respectively. The predicted S. macrospora Chitin synthases (CHS) proteins are encoded by genes with the following locus tag numbers in the genome sequence (Nowrousian et al. 2010): CHS1, SMAC_07828; CHS2, SMAC_07162; CHS3, SMAC_03109; CHS4, SMAC_02767; CHS5, SMAC_01800; CHS6, SMAC_01799; CHS7, SMAC_01722.

Mentions: To characterize the predicted CHS SMAC_01722 and other CHS in S. macrospora, we used BLAST searches (Altschul et al. 1997) in the S. macrospora predicted peptides and identified seven putative CHS that are orthologous to the seven N. crassa CHS (Borkovich et al. 2004; Riquelme and Bartnicki-García 2008) (Figure 1). CHS in ascomycetes can be divided into seven classes according to sequence similarity and domain structure. Two nomenclature systems are in use that are similar for classes I to V but differ in that classes VI and VII are exchanged (Choquer et al. 2004; Mandel et al. 2006), going back to the assignment of class VI to two different types of CHS at almost the same time (Chigira et al. 2002; Roncero 2002). In this study, we use the nomenclature by Choquer et al. (2004), where class VI consists of CHS with a myosin-like domain that is not present in class VII CHS. Classes of CHS can be grouped into divisions by phylogenetic analysis, with division I consisting of classes I, II, and III, which are characterized by an additional catalytic subdomain pfam08407 (Fajardo-Somera et al. 2015; Riquelme and Bartnicki-García 2008). Division II contains the classes IV, V, and VI, which carry a cytochrome b5-like domain, with classes V and VI carrying an additional myosin-head-like domain (Choquer et al. 2004). Division III consists of class VII CHS that have the simplest domain structure and carry no other domains besides the conserved CHS catalytic domain (pfam03142) present in all CHS (Choquer et al. 2004; Riquelme and Bartnicki-García 2008). A phylogenetic analysis showed that the seven S. macrospora CHS represent the seven CHS classes, similar to N. crassa and several other filamentous ascomycetes (Figure 1). The developmentally upregulated SMAC_01722 (XP_003348700.1) encodes a CHS that belongs to class VII, division III; therefore, the gene was named chs7.


Functional Analysis of Developmentally Regulated Genes chs7 and sec22 in the Ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

Traeger S, Nowrousian M - G3 (Bethesda) (2015)

Phylogenetic analysis of chitin synthases from four ascomycetes. A multiple alignments was created with CLUSTALW (Thompson et al. 2002) and used for maximum likelihood analysis with MEGA5.10 (Tamura et al. 2011). Numbers at branches indicate bootstrap support in % for 1000 bootstrap replications. Classes and divisions are labeled according to Choquer et al. (2004) and Riquelme and Bartnicki-García (2008), respectively. The predicted S. macrospora Chitin synthases (CHS) proteins are encoded by genes with the following locus tag numbers in the genome sequence (Nowrousian et al. 2010): CHS1, SMAC_07828; CHS2, SMAC_07162; CHS3, SMAC_03109; CHS4, SMAC_02767; CHS5, SMAC_01800; CHS6, SMAC_01799; CHS7, SMAC_01722.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4478551&req=5

fig1: Phylogenetic analysis of chitin synthases from four ascomycetes. A multiple alignments was created with CLUSTALW (Thompson et al. 2002) and used for maximum likelihood analysis with MEGA5.10 (Tamura et al. 2011). Numbers at branches indicate bootstrap support in % for 1000 bootstrap replications. Classes and divisions are labeled according to Choquer et al. (2004) and Riquelme and Bartnicki-García (2008), respectively. The predicted S. macrospora Chitin synthases (CHS) proteins are encoded by genes with the following locus tag numbers in the genome sequence (Nowrousian et al. 2010): CHS1, SMAC_07828; CHS2, SMAC_07162; CHS3, SMAC_03109; CHS4, SMAC_02767; CHS5, SMAC_01800; CHS6, SMAC_01799; CHS7, SMAC_01722.
Mentions: To characterize the predicted CHS SMAC_01722 and other CHS in S. macrospora, we used BLAST searches (Altschul et al. 1997) in the S. macrospora predicted peptides and identified seven putative CHS that are orthologous to the seven N. crassa CHS (Borkovich et al. 2004; Riquelme and Bartnicki-García 2008) (Figure 1). CHS in ascomycetes can be divided into seven classes according to sequence similarity and domain structure. Two nomenclature systems are in use that are similar for classes I to V but differ in that classes VI and VII are exchanged (Choquer et al. 2004; Mandel et al. 2006), going back to the assignment of class VI to two different types of CHS at almost the same time (Chigira et al. 2002; Roncero 2002). In this study, we use the nomenclature by Choquer et al. (2004), where class VI consists of CHS with a myosin-like domain that is not present in class VII CHS. Classes of CHS can be grouped into divisions by phylogenetic analysis, with division I consisting of classes I, II, and III, which are characterized by an additional catalytic subdomain pfam08407 (Fajardo-Somera et al. 2015; Riquelme and Bartnicki-García 2008). Division II contains the classes IV, V, and VI, which carry a cytochrome b5-like domain, with classes V and VI carrying an additional myosin-head-like domain (Choquer et al. 2004). Division III consists of class VII CHS that have the simplest domain structure and carry no other domains besides the conserved CHS catalytic domain (pfam03142) present in all CHS (Choquer et al. 2004; Riquelme and Bartnicki-García 2008). A phylogenetic analysis showed that the seven S. macrospora CHS represent the seven CHS classes, similar to N. crassa and several other filamentous ascomycetes (Figure 1). The developmentally upregulated SMAC_01722 (XP_003348700.1) encodes a CHS that belongs to class VII, division III; therefore, the gene was named chs7.

Bottom Line: Deletion of sec22 resulted in a reduced number of ascospores and in defects in ascospore pigmentation and germination, whereas vegetative growth was normal in the mutant.Expression of several development-related genes was deregulated in the sec22 mutant, including three genes involved in melanin biosynthesis.Our data indicate that chs7 is dispensable for fruiting body formation in S. macrospora, whereas sec22 is required for ascospore maturation and germination and thus involved in late stages of sexual development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Lehrstuhl für Allgemeine und Molekulare Botanik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, 44780 Bochum, Germany.

No MeSH data available.