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Achieving synchronization with active hybrid materials: Coupling self-oscillating gels and piezoelectric films.

Yashin VV, Levitan SP, Balazs AC - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: The resulting transduction between chemo-mechanical and electrical energy creates signals that can be propagated quickly over long distances and thus, permits remote, non-diffusively coupled oscillators to communicate and synchronize.Moreover, the oscillators can be organized into arbitrary topologies because the electrical connections lift the limitations of diffusive coupling.Using our model, we predict the synchronization behavior that can be used for computational tasks, ultimately enabling "materials that compute".

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA.

ABSTRACT
Lightweight, deformable materials that can sense and respond to human touch and motion can be the basis of future wearable computers, where the material itself will be capable of performing computations. To facilitate the creation of "materials that compute", we draw from two emerging modalities for computation: chemical computing, which relies on reaction-diffusion mechanisms to perform operations, and oscillatory computing, which performs pattern recognition through synchronization of coupled oscillators. Chemical computing systems, however, suffer from the fact that the reacting species are coupled only locally; the coupling is limited by diffusion as the chemical waves propagate throughout the system. Additionally, oscillatory computing systems have not utilized a potentially wearable material. To address both these limitations, we develop the first model for coupling self-oscillating polymer gels to a piezoelectric (PZ) micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS). The resulting transduction between chemo-mechanical and electrical energy creates signals that can be propagated quickly over long distances and thus, permits remote, non-diffusively coupled oscillators to communicate and synchronize. Moreover, the oscillators can be organized into arbitrary topologies because the electrical connections lift the limitations of diffusive coupling. Using our model, we predict the synchronization behavior that can be used for computational tasks, ultimately enabling "materials that compute".

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Electrically coupled piezoelectric MEMS actuated by self-oscillating polymer gels.(a) Two gel-piezoelectric units coupled through the parallel electric connection. (b) The deflection of piezoelectric cantilever ξ and the electric potential difference U caused by the swollen gel having the degree of swelling λ. (c) The piezoelectric cantilever consists of two layers having the length Lp, width wp, and layer thickness hp. (d) The cantilever is fabricated from a polarized piezoelectric material (polarization P); the internal and external surface electrodes are connected in parallel. (e) An un-deformed gel is cube-shaped of size h0. (f) The gel swelling takes place under the action of force Fg, and is restricted to uniaxial deformations characterized by the variable longitudinal and constant transversal degrees of swelling λ and λ⊥, respectively. In calculations, the dimensions are taken to be h0 = 0.5 mm, Lp = wp = 1 mm, hp = 10 μm. The used values λ* and λ⊥ are discussed in the SI.
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f1: Electrically coupled piezoelectric MEMS actuated by self-oscillating polymer gels.(a) Two gel-piezoelectric units coupled through the parallel electric connection. (b) The deflection of piezoelectric cantilever ξ and the electric potential difference U caused by the swollen gel having the degree of swelling λ. (c) The piezoelectric cantilever consists of two layers having the length Lp, width wp, and layer thickness hp. (d) The cantilever is fabricated from a polarized piezoelectric material (polarization P); the internal and external surface electrodes are connected in parallel. (e) An un-deformed gel is cube-shaped of size h0. (f) The gel swelling takes place under the action of force Fg, and is restricted to uniaxial deformations characterized by the variable longitudinal and constant transversal degrees of swelling λ and λ⊥, respectively. In calculations, the dimensions are taken to be h0 = 0.5 mm, Lp = wp = 1 mm, hp = 10 μm. The used values λ* and λ⊥ are discussed in the SI.

Mentions: We focus on polymer gels undergoing the oscillatory Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction12. Fueled by the internalized BZ reaction, the gels oscillate autonomously in size, resembling a beating heart. With multiple BZ gels, the coherence between these oscillations could be used to perform spatio-temporal processing and recognition tasks345. Furthermore, BZ gels are pressure-sensitive67, and thus, could be used as materials that respond to human actions. We envision this BZ-PZ material to have a cellular structure, where each cell contains a swollen gel-piezoelectric unit. Figure 1a shows two electrically connected gel-piezoelectric units, illustrating the simplest coupling that permits communication between the oscillators. The expansion of the oscillating BZ gel on the left deflects the piezoelectric cantilever, which produces an electrical voltage. The generated voltage in turn causes a deflection of the cantilever on the right; this deflection imposes a force on the underlying BZ gel that modifies its oscillations. In this manner, the oscillations of the two gels can eventually become synchronized.


Achieving synchronization with active hybrid materials: Coupling self-oscillating gels and piezoelectric films.

Yashin VV, Levitan SP, Balazs AC - Sci Rep (2015)

Electrically coupled piezoelectric MEMS actuated by self-oscillating polymer gels.(a) Two gel-piezoelectric units coupled through the parallel electric connection. (b) The deflection of piezoelectric cantilever ξ and the electric potential difference U caused by the swollen gel having the degree of swelling λ. (c) The piezoelectric cantilever consists of two layers having the length Lp, width wp, and layer thickness hp. (d) The cantilever is fabricated from a polarized piezoelectric material (polarization P); the internal and external surface electrodes are connected in parallel. (e) An un-deformed gel is cube-shaped of size h0. (f) The gel swelling takes place under the action of force Fg, and is restricted to uniaxial deformations characterized by the variable longitudinal and constant transversal degrees of swelling λ and λ⊥, respectively. In calculations, the dimensions are taken to be h0 = 0.5 mm, Lp = wp = 1 mm, hp = 10 μm. The used values λ* and λ⊥ are discussed in the SI.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4478467&req=5

f1: Electrically coupled piezoelectric MEMS actuated by self-oscillating polymer gels.(a) Two gel-piezoelectric units coupled through the parallel electric connection. (b) The deflection of piezoelectric cantilever ξ and the electric potential difference U caused by the swollen gel having the degree of swelling λ. (c) The piezoelectric cantilever consists of two layers having the length Lp, width wp, and layer thickness hp. (d) The cantilever is fabricated from a polarized piezoelectric material (polarization P); the internal and external surface electrodes are connected in parallel. (e) An un-deformed gel is cube-shaped of size h0. (f) The gel swelling takes place under the action of force Fg, and is restricted to uniaxial deformations characterized by the variable longitudinal and constant transversal degrees of swelling λ and λ⊥, respectively. In calculations, the dimensions are taken to be h0 = 0.5 mm, Lp = wp = 1 mm, hp = 10 μm. The used values λ* and λ⊥ are discussed in the SI.
Mentions: We focus on polymer gels undergoing the oscillatory Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction12. Fueled by the internalized BZ reaction, the gels oscillate autonomously in size, resembling a beating heart. With multiple BZ gels, the coherence between these oscillations could be used to perform spatio-temporal processing and recognition tasks345. Furthermore, BZ gels are pressure-sensitive67, and thus, could be used as materials that respond to human actions. We envision this BZ-PZ material to have a cellular structure, where each cell contains a swollen gel-piezoelectric unit. Figure 1a shows two electrically connected gel-piezoelectric units, illustrating the simplest coupling that permits communication between the oscillators. The expansion of the oscillating BZ gel on the left deflects the piezoelectric cantilever, which produces an electrical voltage. The generated voltage in turn causes a deflection of the cantilever on the right; this deflection imposes a force on the underlying BZ gel that modifies its oscillations. In this manner, the oscillations of the two gels can eventually become synchronized.

Bottom Line: The resulting transduction between chemo-mechanical and electrical energy creates signals that can be propagated quickly over long distances and thus, permits remote, non-diffusively coupled oscillators to communicate and synchronize.Moreover, the oscillators can be organized into arbitrary topologies because the electrical connections lift the limitations of diffusive coupling.Using our model, we predict the synchronization behavior that can be used for computational tasks, ultimately enabling "materials that compute".

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA.

ABSTRACT
Lightweight, deformable materials that can sense and respond to human touch and motion can be the basis of future wearable computers, where the material itself will be capable of performing computations. To facilitate the creation of "materials that compute", we draw from two emerging modalities for computation: chemical computing, which relies on reaction-diffusion mechanisms to perform operations, and oscillatory computing, which performs pattern recognition through synchronization of coupled oscillators. Chemical computing systems, however, suffer from the fact that the reacting species are coupled only locally; the coupling is limited by diffusion as the chemical waves propagate throughout the system. Additionally, oscillatory computing systems have not utilized a potentially wearable material. To address both these limitations, we develop the first model for coupling self-oscillating polymer gels to a piezoelectric (PZ) micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS). The resulting transduction between chemo-mechanical and electrical energy creates signals that can be propagated quickly over long distances and thus, permits remote, non-diffusively coupled oscillators to communicate and synchronize. Moreover, the oscillators can be organized into arbitrary topologies because the electrical connections lift the limitations of diffusive coupling. Using our model, we predict the synchronization behavior that can be used for computational tasks, ultimately enabling "materials that compute".

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus