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Circulating MicroRNAs: Potential and Emerging Biomarkers for Diagnosis of Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Diseases.

Li M, Zhang J - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Bottom Line: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are composed of a group of endogenous and noncoding small RNAs which control expression of complementary target mRNAs.The extended functions of miRNAs enhance the complexity of gene-regulatory processes in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.This review highlights the most recent findings indicative of circulating miRNAs as potential clinical biomarkers for diagnosis of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate School, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin 300193, China.

ABSTRACT
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are composed of a group of endogenous and noncoding small RNAs which control expression of complementary target mRNAs. The extended functions of miRNAs enhance the complexity of gene-regulatory processes in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Indeed, recent studies have shown that miRNAs are closely related to myocardial infarction, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, cardiomyopathy, hypertension, angiogenesis, coronary artery disease, dyslipidaemia, stroke, and so forth. These findings suggest a new therapeutic pointcut for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and show the extensive therapeutic potential of miRNA regulation. Moreover, it has been shown that circulating extracellular miRNAs are stable in bodily fluids, which indicates circulating miRNAs as potential and emerging biomarkers for noninvasive diagnosis. This review highlights the most recent findings indicative of circulating miRNAs as potential clinical biomarkers for diagnosis of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Biogenesis of miRNAs. In the nucleus, miRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerase II to generate long primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs), which may contain more than one miRNA. Pri-miRNAs are subsequently processed by the RNase III enzyme (Drosha) and its binding partner DGCR8, forming hairpin-like precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs). Pre-miRNAs are exported into the cytoplasm by exportin-5 with a Ran-GTP-dependent mechanism. Pre-miRNAs are cleaved by the RNase III enzyme (Dicer) to mature miRNAs. A single strand of the short interfering RNA (siRNA) or miRNA duplex forms RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISC). Then miRNAs guide RISC to complementary sites of the target mRNAs, initiating degradation or cleavage of mRNA.
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fig1: Biogenesis of miRNAs. In the nucleus, miRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerase II to generate long primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs), which may contain more than one miRNA. Pri-miRNAs are subsequently processed by the RNase III enzyme (Drosha) and its binding partner DGCR8, forming hairpin-like precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs). Pre-miRNAs are exported into the cytoplasm by exportin-5 with a Ran-GTP-dependent mechanism. Pre-miRNAs are cleaved by the RNase III enzyme (Dicer) to mature miRNAs. A single strand of the short interfering RNA (siRNA) or miRNA duplex forms RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISC). Then miRNAs guide RISC to complementary sites of the target mRNAs, initiating degradation or cleavage of mRNA.

Mentions: First discovered in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) in 1993, miRNAs inhibited their target genes by mRNA degradation or translational repression [1]. miRNAs are short noncoding RNAs of about 17–25 nucleotides in length. In the nucleus, miRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerase II to generate long primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs), which may contain more than one miRNA. Pri-miRNAs are subsequently processed by the RNase III enzyme (Drosha) and its binding partner DGCR8, forming hairpin-like precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs). Pre-miRNAs are exported into the cytoplasm by exportin-5 with a Ran-GTP-dependent mechanism. Pre-miRNAs are cleaved by the RNase III enzyme (Dicer) to mature miRNAs [2]. A single strand of the short interfering RNA (siRNA) or miRNA duplex forms RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISC). Argonaute (Ago) proteins are the catalytic endonuclease of RISC, and PIWI domain is the catalytic center. Recently, it was found that Dicer and Ago proteins are additional protein cofactors of the holo-RISC complex. The pre-miRNA processing and RISC fitting are functionally coupled, and ATP is not required. Then miRNAs guide RISC to complementary sites (most often located in the 3′-untranslated region) of the target mRNAs, which inhibits the mRNA functions [3, 4] (Figure 1).


Circulating MicroRNAs: Potential and Emerging Biomarkers for Diagnosis of Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Diseases.

Li M, Zhang J - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Biogenesis of miRNAs. In the nucleus, miRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerase II to generate long primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs), which may contain more than one miRNA. Pri-miRNAs are subsequently processed by the RNase III enzyme (Drosha) and its binding partner DGCR8, forming hairpin-like precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs). Pre-miRNAs are exported into the cytoplasm by exportin-5 with a Ran-GTP-dependent mechanism. Pre-miRNAs are cleaved by the RNase III enzyme (Dicer) to mature miRNAs. A single strand of the short interfering RNA (siRNA) or miRNA duplex forms RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISC). Then miRNAs guide RISC to complementary sites of the target mRNAs, initiating degradation or cleavage of mRNA.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4477423&req=5

fig1: Biogenesis of miRNAs. In the nucleus, miRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerase II to generate long primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs), which may contain more than one miRNA. Pri-miRNAs are subsequently processed by the RNase III enzyme (Drosha) and its binding partner DGCR8, forming hairpin-like precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs). Pre-miRNAs are exported into the cytoplasm by exportin-5 with a Ran-GTP-dependent mechanism. Pre-miRNAs are cleaved by the RNase III enzyme (Dicer) to mature miRNAs. A single strand of the short interfering RNA (siRNA) or miRNA duplex forms RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISC). Then miRNAs guide RISC to complementary sites of the target mRNAs, initiating degradation or cleavage of mRNA.
Mentions: First discovered in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) in 1993, miRNAs inhibited their target genes by mRNA degradation or translational repression [1]. miRNAs are short noncoding RNAs of about 17–25 nucleotides in length. In the nucleus, miRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerase II to generate long primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs), which may contain more than one miRNA. Pri-miRNAs are subsequently processed by the RNase III enzyme (Drosha) and its binding partner DGCR8, forming hairpin-like precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs). Pre-miRNAs are exported into the cytoplasm by exportin-5 with a Ran-GTP-dependent mechanism. Pre-miRNAs are cleaved by the RNase III enzyme (Dicer) to mature miRNAs [2]. A single strand of the short interfering RNA (siRNA) or miRNA duplex forms RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISC). Argonaute (Ago) proteins are the catalytic endonuclease of RISC, and PIWI domain is the catalytic center. Recently, it was found that Dicer and Ago proteins are additional protein cofactors of the holo-RISC complex. The pre-miRNA processing and RISC fitting are functionally coupled, and ATP is not required. Then miRNAs guide RISC to complementary sites (most often located in the 3′-untranslated region) of the target mRNAs, which inhibits the mRNA functions [3, 4] (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are composed of a group of endogenous and noncoding small RNAs which control expression of complementary target mRNAs.The extended functions of miRNAs enhance the complexity of gene-regulatory processes in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.This review highlights the most recent findings indicative of circulating miRNAs as potential clinical biomarkers for diagnosis of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate School, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin 300193, China.

ABSTRACT
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are composed of a group of endogenous and noncoding small RNAs which control expression of complementary target mRNAs. The extended functions of miRNAs enhance the complexity of gene-regulatory processes in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Indeed, recent studies have shown that miRNAs are closely related to myocardial infarction, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, cardiomyopathy, hypertension, angiogenesis, coronary artery disease, dyslipidaemia, stroke, and so forth. These findings suggest a new therapeutic pointcut for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and show the extensive therapeutic potential of miRNA regulation. Moreover, it has been shown that circulating extracellular miRNAs are stable in bodily fluids, which indicates circulating miRNAs as potential and emerging biomarkers for noninvasive diagnosis. This review highlights the most recent findings indicative of circulating miRNAs as potential clinical biomarkers for diagnosis of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus