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Temperature-induced shifts in hibernation behavior in experimental amphibian populations.

Gao X, Jin C, Llusia D, Li Y - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: Using outdoor mesocosm experiments, we examined the effects of temperature (ambient vs. + ~2.2/2.4 °C of pre-/post-hibernation warming) and food availability (normal vs. 1/3 food) on the date of entrance into/emergence from hibernation in Pelophylax nigromaculatus.We found temperature was the major factor determining the hibernation period, which showed a significant shortening under experimental warming (6-8 days), with delays in autumn and advances in spring.We believe that this study provides some of the first experimental evidence for the effect of climate warming on the timing of amphibian hibernation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101, China [2] University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yuquan Road, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049, China.

ABSTRACT
Phenological shifts are primary responses of species to recent climate change. Such changes might lead to temporal mismatches in food webs and exacerbate species vulnerability. Yet insights into this phenomenon through experimental approaches are still scarce, especially in amphibians, which are particularly sensitive to changing thermal environments. Here, under controlled warming conditions, we report a critical, but poorly studied, life-cycle stage (i.e., hibernation) in frogs inhabiting subtropical latitudes. Using outdoor mesocosm experiments, we examined the effects of temperature (ambient vs. + ~2.2/2.4 °C of pre-/post-hibernation warming) and food availability (normal vs. 1/3 food) on the date of entrance into/emergence from hibernation in Pelophylax nigromaculatus. We found temperature was the major factor determining the hibernation period, which showed a significant shortening under experimental warming (6-8 days), with delays in autumn and advances in spring. Moreover, the timing of hibernation was not affected by food availability, whereas sex and, particularly, age were key factors in the species' phenological responses. Specifically, male individuals emerged from hibernation earlier, while older individuals also entered and emerged from hibernation earlier. We believe that this study provides some of the first experimental evidence for the effect of climate warming on the timing of amphibian hibernation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Air temperature (°C) recorded during the outdoor mesocosm experiments.Values correspond to daily average temperatures in 6 mesocosm units under ambient temperature and 12 mesocosm units exposed to experimental warming.
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f1: Air temperature (°C) recorded during the outdoor mesocosm experiments.Values correspond to daily average temperatures in 6 mesocosm units under ambient temperature and 12 mesocosm units exposed to experimental warming.

Mentions: Air temperatures recorded in the mesocosms exposed to ambient temperature were on average 14.9 °C (4.1–23.4 °C) during the pre-hibernation period, 6.5 °C (2.0–10.9 °C) during hibernation and 19.5 °C (4.8–32.2 °C) during the post-hibernation period. Air temperatures recorded in the experimentally warmed mesocosms were on average 17.1 °C (5.9–26.0 °C) during the pre-hibernation period and 21.9 °C (6.1–35.0 °C) during the post-hibernation period (Fig. 1). Thereby, air temperatures in the warming treatments were on average 2.3 °C above these in other treatments: 2.2 °C (0.7–4.3 °C) for the pre-hibernation warming period and 2.4 °C (0.5–5.8 °C) for the post-hibernation warming period. Such an increase in air temperature is consistent with the predicted temperature rise (2.1–2.8 °C) in the experimental area by GISS-EH model A1B warming scenarios for the end of the century31, which reflect a medium long-term risk of global warming.


Temperature-induced shifts in hibernation behavior in experimental amphibian populations.

Gao X, Jin C, Llusia D, Li Y - Sci Rep (2015)

Air temperature (°C) recorded during the outdoor mesocosm experiments.Values correspond to daily average temperatures in 6 mesocosm units under ambient temperature and 12 mesocosm units exposed to experimental warming.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4477341&req=5

f1: Air temperature (°C) recorded during the outdoor mesocosm experiments.Values correspond to daily average temperatures in 6 mesocosm units under ambient temperature and 12 mesocosm units exposed to experimental warming.
Mentions: Air temperatures recorded in the mesocosms exposed to ambient temperature were on average 14.9 °C (4.1–23.4 °C) during the pre-hibernation period, 6.5 °C (2.0–10.9 °C) during hibernation and 19.5 °C (4.8–32.2 °C) during the post-hibernation period. Air temperatures recorded in the experimentally warmed mesocosms were on average 17.1 °C (5.9–26.0 °C) during the pre-hibernation period and 21.9 °C (6.1–35.0 °C) during the post-hibernation period (Fig. 1). Thereby, air temperatures in the warming treatments were on average 2.3 °C above these in other treatments: 2.2 °C (0.7–4.3 °C) for the pre-hibernation warming period and 2.4 °C (0.5–5.8 °C) for the post-hibernation warming period. Such an increase in air temperature is consistent with the predicted temperature rise (2.1–2.8 °C) in the experimental area by GISS-EH model A1B warming scenarios for the end of the century31, which reflect a medium long-term risk of global warming.

Bottom Line: Using outdoor mesocosm experiments, we examined the effects of temperature (ambient vs. + ~2.2/2.4 °C of pre-/post-hibernation warming) and food availability (normal vs. 1/3 food) on the date of entrance into/emergence from hibernation in Pelophylax nigromaculatus.We found temperature was the major factor determining the hibernation period, which showed a significant shortening under experimental warming (6-8 days), with delays in autumn and advances in spring.We believe that this study provides some of the first experimental evidence for the effect of climate warming on the timing of amphibian hibernation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101, China [2] University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yuquan Road, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049, China.

ABSTRACT
Phenological shifts are primary responses of species to recent climate change. Such changes might lead to temporal mismatches in food webs and exacerbate species vulnerability. Yet insights into this phenomenon through experimental approaches are still scarce, especially in amphibians, which are particularly sensitive to changing thermal environments. Here, under controlled warming conditions, we report a critical, but poorly studied, life-cycle stage (i.e., hibernation) in frogs inhabiting subtropical latitudes. Using outdoor mesocosm experiments, we examined the effects of temperature (ambient vs. + ~2.2/2.4 °C of pre-/post-hibernation warming) and food availability (normal vs. 1/3 food) on the date of entrance into/emergence from hibernation in Pelophylax nigromaculatus. We found temperature was the major factor determining the hibernation period, which showed a significant shortening under experimental warming (6-8 days), with delays in autumn and advances in spring. Moreover, the timing of hibernation was not affected by food availability, whereas sex and, particularly, age were key factors in the species' phenological responses. Specifically, male individuals emerged from hibernation earlier, while older individuals also entered and emerged from hibernation earlier. We believe that this study provides some of the first experimental evidence for the effect of climate warming on the timing of amphibian hibernation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus