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Student perceptions of gamified audience response system interactions in large group lectures and via lecture capture technology.

Pettit RK, McCoy L, Kinney M, Schwartz FN - BMC Med Educ (2015)

Bottom Line: A significant majority of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed that the games were engaging, and an effective learning tool.Students clearly valued the engagement and learning aspects of gamified TP interactions.The methods described in this study may be useful for other educators wishing to expand the utility of ARS in their classrooms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: A. T. Still University, School of Osteopathic Medicine in Arizona, 5850 E. Still Circle, Mesa, AZ, 85206, USA. rpettit@atsu.edu.

ABSTRACT

Background: Higher education students have positive attitudes about the use of audience response systems (ARS), but even technology-enhanced lessons can become tiresome if the pedagogical approach is exactly the same with each implementation. Gamification is the notion that gaming mechanics can be applied to routine activities. In this study, TurningPoint (TP) ARS interactions were gamified and implemented in 22 large group medical microbiology lectures throughout an integrated year 1 osteopathic medical school curriculum.

Methods: A 32-item questionnaire was used to measure students' perceptions of the gamified TP interactions at the end of their first year. The survey instrument generated both Likert scale and open-ended response data that addressed game design and variety, engagement and learning features, use of TP questions after class, and any value of lecture capture technology for reviewing these interactive presentations. The Chi Square Test was used to analyze grouped responses to Likert scale questions. Responses to open-ended prompts were categorized using open-coding.

Results: Ninety-one students out of 106 (86 %) responded to the survey. A significant majority of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed that the games were engaging, and an effective learning tool. The questionnaire investigated the degree to which specific features of these interactions were engaging (nine items) and promoted learning (seven items). The most highly ranked engagement aspects were peer competition and focus on the activity (tied for highest ranking), and the most highly ranked learning aspect was applying theoretical knowledge to clinical scenarios. Another notable item was the variety of interactions, which ranked in the top three in both the engagement and learning categories. Open-ended comments shed light on how students use TP questions for exam preparation, and revealed engaging and non-engaging attributes of these interactive sessions for students who review them via lecture capture.

Conclusions: Students clearly valued the engagement and learning aspects of gamified TP interactions. The overwhelming majority of students surveyed in this study were engaged by the variety of TP games, and gained an interest in microbiology. The methods described in this study may be useful for other educators wishing to expand the utility of ARS in their classrooms.

No MeSH data available.


TP slides showing examples of gamification elements and the variety of TP ARS interactions. (a) participant leaderboard (b) mystery bug question (image used with permission from S.E. Gould, http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/network-central/2011/10/11/introducing-sciamblogs-bloggers-s-e-gould/); correct answer indicator (microbe image from CDC Newsroom Image Library) (c) fastest correct responder (d) team competition (e) peer teaching (f) winner of individual participant competition (cheerleader image from FreeDigitalPhotos.net) (g) wagering (dice image by Stephen Silver at Open Clip Art Library via Wikimedia Commons) (h) identifying misconceptions prior to introducing new material; correct answer indicator (microbe image by Janice Haney Carr at Public Health Image Library) (i) ranking responses
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Fig1: TP slides showing examples of gamification elements and the variety of TP ARS interactions. (a) participant leaderboard (b) mystery bug question (image used with permission from S.E. Gould, http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/network-central/2011/10/11/introducing-sciamblogs-bloggers-s-e-gould/); correct answer indicator (microbe image from CDC Newsroom Image Library) (c) fastest correct responder (d) team competition (e) peer teaching (f) winner of individual participant competition (cheerleader image from FreeDigitalPhotos.net) (g) wagering (dice image by Stephen Silver at Open Clip Art Library via Wikimedia Commons) (h) identifying misconceptions prior to introducing new material; correct answer indicator (microbe image by Janice Haney Carr at Public Health Image Library) (i) ranking responses

Mentions: Games can be defined as outcome-oriented activities that proceed according to a set of rules and often involve decision making [40]. Outcome or goal-oriented activities are salient to adult learners [41], and specifically, to medical students (McCoy et al., submitted). TP ARS interactions inherently have a few game elements and mechanics, for example, the action of clicking the device and the real-time information flow (immediate feedback). We introduced many more game elements and mechanics [20, 37] into our TP ARS large group interactions: rules, objects (e.g. leader boards inserted at intervals to show points accumulated during the game by each player or team (Fig. 1a), custom correct answer indicators representing the organism being discussed (Fig. 1b), mystery bug character for rapid review (Fig. 1b)); action using fastest responder slides inserted after simple recall-type questions (Fig. 1c); collaboration using team competitions where students join teams at the game outset by clicking on their team letter (Fig. 1d); peer teaching where students answer a question individually using their clickers, then discuss the question with a neighbor, and answer the question again using any knowledge gained (Fig. 1e); individual and team competition (individual or team leader boards (Fig. 1f shows an individual leader board at the end of a gamified TP ARS interaction)); social fabric (the idea that people like one another better after they’ve played games together, build a higher level of trust, and have a greater willingness to work together); progression dynamic (individual or team participant boards inserted at intervals); countdown (fastest responder); urgent optimism (desire to act immediately to tackle an obstacle combined with the belief that we have a reasonable hope of success); achievement, status (winner of individual participant board or fastest responder or team MVP); prizes (trivial prizes, for e.g., candy in the shape of the microbe(s) covered in that interactive lecture); and chance (the risk of wagering; these slides were occasionally inserted prior to the final question (Fig. 1g)). Game pleasure elements [20] included sensation (imported audio of clapping when winning score displayed on screen (Fig. 1f, upper right), imported images, holding the clicker), challenge (most questions were in the style of United States medical licensing exams), anticipation (students told at beginning of lecture that there would be a certain number of fastest responder slides, or that in team competition there would be a MVP that day), humor (images, team names), surprise (random insertion of fastest responder slides, wager slides and tie-breaker slides), and pride in accomplishment (occasional simple questions to build confidence).Fig. 1


Student perceptions of gamified audience response system interactions in large group lectures and via lecture capture technology.

Pettit RK, McCoy L, Kinney M, Schwartz FN - BMC Med Educ (2015)

TP slides showing examples of gamification elements and the variety of TP ARS interactions. (a) participant leaderboard (b) mystery bug question (image used with permission from S.E. Gould, http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/network-central/2011/10/11/introducing-sciamblogs-bloggers-s-e-gould/); correct answer indicator (microbe image from CDC Newsroom Image Library) (c) fastest correct responder (d) team competition (e) peer teaching (f) winner of individual participant competition (cheerleader image from FreeDigitalPhotos.net) (g) wagering (dice image by Stephen Silver at Open Clip Art Library via Wikimedia Commons) (h) identifying misconceptions prior to introducing new material; correct answer indicator (microbe image by Janice Haney Carr at Public Health Image Library) (i) ranking responses
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4477320&req=5

Fig1: TP slides showing examples of gamification elements and the variety of TP ARS interactions. (a) participant leaderboard (b) mystery bug question (image used with permission from S.E. Gould, http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/network-central/2011/10/11/introducing-sciamblogs-bloggers-s-e-gould/); correct answer indicator (microbe image from CDC Newsroom Image Library) (c) fastest correct responder (d) team competition (e) peer teaching (f) winner of individual participant competition (cheerleader image from FreeDigitalPhotos.net) (g) wagering (dice image by Stephen Silver at Open Clip Art Library via Wikimedia Commons) (h) identifying misconceptions prior to introducing new material; correct answer indicator (microbe image by Janice Haney Carr at Public Health Image Library) (i) ranking responses
Mentions: Games can be defined as outcome-oriented activities that proceed according to a set of rules and often involve decision making [40]. Outcome or goal-oriented activities are salient to adult learners [41], and specifically, to medical students (McCoy et al., submitted). TP ARS interactions inherently have a few game elements and mechanics, for example, the action of clicking the device and the real-time information flow (immediate feedback). We introduced many more game elements and mechanics [20, 37] into our TP ARS large group interactions: rules, objects (e.g. leader boards inserted at intervals to show points accumulated during the game by each player or team (Fig. 1a), custom correct answer indicators representing the organism being discussed (Fig. 1b), mystery bug character for rapid review (Fig. 1b)); action using fastest responder slides inserted after simple recall-type questions (Fig. 1c); collaboration using team competitions where students join teams at the game outset by clicking on their team letter (Fig. 1d); peer teaching where students answer a question individually using their clickers, then discuss the question with a neighbor, and answer the question again using any knowledge gained (Fig. 1e); individual and team competition (individual or team leader boards (Fig. 1f shows an individual leader board at the end of a gamified TP ARS interaction)); social fabric (the idea that people like one another better after they’ve played games together, build a higher level of trust, and have a greater willingness to work together); progression dynamic (individual or team participant boards inserted at intervals); countdown (fastest responder); urgent optimism (desire to act immediately to tackle an obstacle combined with the belief that we have a reasonable hope of success); achievement, status (winner of individual participant board or fastest responder or team MVP); prizes (trivial prizes, for e.g., candy in the shape of the microbe(s) covered in that interactive lecture); and chance (the risk of wagering; these slides were occasionally inserted prior to the final question (Fig. 1g)). Game pleasure elements [20] included sensation (imported audio of clapping when winning score displayed on screen (Fig. 1f, upper right), imported images, holding the clicker), challenge (most questions were in the style of United States medical licensing exams), anticipation (students told at beginning of lecture that there would be a certain number of fastest responder slides, or that in team competition there would be a MVP that day), humor (images, team names), surprise (random insertion of fastest responder slides, wager slides and tie-breaker slides), and pride in accomplishment (occasional simple questions to build confidence).Fig. 1

Bottom Line: A significant majority of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed that the games were engaging, and an effective learning tool.Students clearly valued the engagement and learning aspects of gamified TP interactions.The methods described in this study may be useful for other educators wishing to expand the utility of ARS in their classrooms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: A. T. Still University, School of Osteopathic Medicine in Arizona, 5850 E. Still Circle, Mesa, AZ, 85206, USA. rpettit@atsu.edu.

ABSTRACT

Background: Higher education students have positive attitudes about the use of audience response systems (ARS), but even technology-enhanced lessons can become tiresome if the pedagogical approach is exactly the same with each implementation. Gamification is the notion that gaming mechanics can be applied to routine activities. In this study, TurningPoint (TP) ARS interactions were gamified and implemented in 22 large group medical microbiology lectures throughout an integrated year 1 osteopathic medical school curriculum.

Methods: A 32-item questionnaire was used to measure students' perceptions of the gamified TP interactions at the end of their first year. The survey instrument generated both Likert scale and open-ended response data that addressed game design and variety, engagement and learning features, use of TP questions after class, and any value of lecture capture technology for reviewing these interactive presentations. The Chi Square Test was used to analyze grouped responses to Likert scale questions. Responses to open-ended prompts were categorized using open-coding.

Results: Ninety-one students out of 106 (86 %) responded to the survey. A significant majority of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed that the games were engaging, and an effective learning tool. The questionnaire investigated the degree to which specific features of these interactions were engaging (nine items) and promoted learning (seven items). The most highly ranked engagement aspects were peer competition and focus on the activity (tied for highest ranking), and the most highly ranked learning aspect was applying theoretical knowledge to clinical scenarios. Another notable item was the variety of interactions, which ranked in the top three in both the engagement and learning categories. Open-ended comments shed light on how students use TP questions for exam preparation, and revealed engaging and non-engaging attributes of these interactive sessions for students who review them via lecture capture.

Conclusions: Students clearly valued the engagement and learning aspects of gamified TP interactions. The overwhelming majority of students surveyed in this study were engaged by the variety of TP games, and gained an interest in microbiology. The methods described in this study may be useful for other educators wishing to expand the utility of ARS in their classrooms.

No MeSH data available.