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A multivariate analysis on the comparison of raw notoginseng (Sanqi) and its granule products by thin-layer chromatography and ultra-performance liquid chromatography.

Zhou X, Razmovski-Naumovski V, Chan K - Chin Med (2015)

Bottom Line: The contents of the five marker compounds in Group 1 were higher than Group 2 and also exhibited stronger ABTS activity (P = 0.005).By Pearson correlation, the contents of the five compounds in the samples were positively and significantly correlated to their antioxidant activities.UPLC was more efficient than TLC for the simultaneous determination of the five major compounds in Sanqi products in terms of linearity, higher sensitivity and repeatability.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The National Institute of Complementary Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 2751 Australia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Granule products produced from medicinal herbs are gaining popularity. However, there have been few studies comparing the quality or efficacy of granules with those of herbal formulations. This study aims to compare commercially available notoginseng (Sanqi in Chinese) in both raw and granule forms by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (UPLC-PDA) using multivariate analysis.

Methods: Aqueous extracts of the raw herb (collected from six different sources in China) and granule products (purchased in China, Taiwan and Australia) were re-extracted with methanol to remove water-soluble excipients. Five compounds (ginsenosides Rg1, Rg2, Rd and Rb1 and notoginsenoside NR1) in the methanolic extracts were quantified by TLC and UPLC-PDA. Multivariate statistical analysis using hierarchical component analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine the similarities between the granule products and raw herbs. A 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assay was used to measure the antioxidant capacities of the extracts.

Results: HCA and PCA of the TLC analysis clustered the granule products into one group. By UPLC analysis, the raw herbs and two of the granule products (G7 and G12) were allocated into Group 1 and the rest of the granule products into Group 2. The contents of the five marker compounds in Group 1 were higher than Group 2 and also exhibited stronger ABTS activity (P = 0.005). By Pearson correlation, the contents of the five compounds in the samples were positively and significantly correlated to their antioxidant activities.

Conclusions: UPLC was more efficient than TLC for the simultaneous determination of the five major compounds in Sanqi products in terms of linearity, higher sensitivity and repeatability. The statistical analysis of the samples by HCA and PCA revealed that the contents of the marker compounds were significantly higher in the raw herb group than the granule group.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

ABTS activity of Sanqi raw herb and granule extracts (n ≥ 3). Generally, raw herb samples (12.68 – 31.41 mM/g DW) showed a higher ABTS radical scavenging activity than granule samples (1.41 – 21.13 mM/g DW). R6 exhibited the highest anti-oxidant activity among all the samples (31.41 mM/g DW). For the granule samples, G7 and G12 possessed strong radical scavenging activity (21.13 and 15.28 mM/g DW, respectively)
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Fig4: ABTS activity of Sanqi raw herb and granule extracts (n ≥ 3). Generally, raw herb samples (12.68 – 31.41 mM/g DW) showed a higher ABTS radical scavenging activity than granule samples (1.41 – 21.13 mM/g DW). R6 exhibited the highest anti-oxidant activity among all the samples (31.41 mM/g DW). For the granule samples, G7 and G12 possessed strong radical scavenging activity (21.13 and 15.28 mM/g DW, respectively)

Mentions: The ABTS assay was conducted at both 730 nm and 410 nm for comparison with the literature, and both wavelengths gave similar results (Fig. 4). The results for the ABTS assay at 730 nm are reported here, as the values are reported as Trolox equivalents and this is measured at 730 nm. R6 exhibited the highest antioxidant activity among all the samples (31.41 mmol L−1/g DW). For the granules, both G7 and G12 showed strong radical scavenging activity (21.13 and 15.28 mmol L−1/g DW, respectively). Non-parametric analysis showed that the antioxidant capacities of G7 and G12 were similar to R1–R6 (Group 1) (P > 0.05). The ABTS radical scavenging activity of Group 1 was significantly higher than that of Group 2 (P = 0.005). Pearson correlation was performed to examine the relationship between the quantitative data and radical scavenging capacities. There were significant correlations between the UPLC results for the marker contents and the corresponding antioxidant activities (Table 4).Fig. 4


A multivariate analysis on the comparison of raw notoginseng (Sanqi) and its granule products by thin-layer chromatography and ultra-performance liquid chromatography.

Zhou X, Razmovski-Naumovski V, Chan K - Chin Med (2015)

ABTS activity of Sanqi raw herb and granule extracts (n ≥ 3). Generally, raw herb samples (12.68 – 31.41 mM/g DW) showed a higher ABTS radical scavenging activity than granule samples (1.41 – 21.13 mM/g DW). R6 exhibited the highest anti-oxidant activity among all the samples (31.41 mM/g DW). For the granule samples, G7 and G12 possessed strong radical scavenging activity (21.13 and 15.28 mM/g DW, respectively)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4477300&req=5

Fig4: ABTS activity of Sanqi raw herb and granule extracts (n ≥ 3). Generally, raw herb samples (12.68 – 31.41 mM/g DW) showed a higher ABTS radical scavenging activity than granule samples (1.41 – 21.13 mM/g DW). R6 exhibited the highest anti-oxidant activity among all the samples (31.41 mM/g DW). For the granule samples, G7 and G12 possessed strong radical scavenging activity (21.13 and 15.28 mM/g DW, respectively)
Mentions: The ABTS assay was conducted at both 730 nm and 410 nm for comparison with the literature, and both wavelengths gave similar results (Fig. 4). The results for the ABTS assay at 730 nm are reported here, as the values are reported as Trolox equivalents and this is measured at 730 nm. R6 exhibited the highest antioxidant activity among all the samples (31.41 mmol L−1/g DW). For the granules, both G7 and G12 showed strong radical scavenging activity (21.13 and 15.28 mmol L−1/g DW, respectively). Non-parametric analysis showed that the antioxidant capacities of G7 and G12 were similar to R1–R6 (Group 1) (P > 0.05). The ABTS radical scavenging activity of Group 1 was significantly higher than that of Group 2 (P = 0.005). Pearson correlation was performed to examine the relationship between the quantitative data and radical scavenging capacities. There were significant correlations between the UPLC results for the marker contents and the corresponding antioxidant activities (Table 4).Fig. 4

Bottom Line: The contents of the five marker compounds in Group 1 were higher than Group 2 and also exhibited stronger ABTS activity (P = 0.005).By Pearson correlation, the contents of the five compounds in the samples were positively and significantly correlated to their antioxidant activities.UPLC was more efficient than TLC for the simultaneous determination of the five major compounds in Sanqi products in terms of linearity, higher sensitivity and repeatability.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The National Institute of Complementary Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 2751 Australia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Granule products produced from medicinal herbs are gaining popularity. However, there have been few studies comparing the quality or efficacy of granules with those of herbal formulations. This study aims to compare commercially available notoginseng (Sanqi in Chinese) in both raw and granule forms by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (UPLC-PDA) using multivariate analysis.

Methods: Aqueous extracts of the raw herb (collected from six different sources in China) and granule products (purchased in China, Taiwan and Australia) were re-extracted with methanol to remove water-soluble excipients. Five compounds (ginsenosides Rg1, Rg2, Rd and Rb1 and notoginsenoside NR1) in the methanolic extracts were quantified by TLC and UPLC-PDA. Multivariate statistical analysis using hierarchical component analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine the similarities between the granule products and raw herbs. A 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assay was used to measure the antioxidant capacities of the extracts.

Results: HCA and PCA of the TLC analysis clustered the granule products into one group. By UPLC analysis, the raw herbs and two of the granule products (G7 and G12) were allocated into Group 1 and the rest of the granule products into Group 2. The contents of the five marker compounds in Group 1 were higher than Group 2 and also exhibited stronger ABTS activity (P = 0.005). By Pearson correlation, the contents of the five compounds in the samples were positively and significantly correlated to their antioxidant activities.

Conclusions: UPLC was more efficient than TLC for the simultaneous determination of the five major compounds in Sanqi products in terms of linearity, higher sensitivity and repeatability. The statistical analysis of the samples by HCA and PCA revealed that the contents of the marker compounds were significantly higher in the raw herb group than the granule group.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus