Limits...
A multivariate analysis on the comparison of raw notoginseng (Sanqi) and its granule products by thin-layer chromatography and ultra-performance liquid chromatography.

Zhou X, Razmovski-Naumovski V, Chan K - Chin Med (2015)

Bottom Line: The contents of the five marker compounds in Group 1 were higher than Group 2 and also exhibited stronger ABTS activity (P = 0.005).By Pearson correlation, the contents of the five compounds in the samples were positively and significantly correlated to their antioxidant activities.UPLC was more efficient than TLC for the simultaneous determination of the five major compounds in Sanqi products in terms of linearity, higher sensitivity and repeatability.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The National Institute of Complementary Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 2751 Australia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Granule products produced from medicinal herbs are gaining popularity. However, there have been few studies comparing the quality or efficacy of granules with those of herbal formulations. This study aims to compare commercially available notoginseng (Sanqi in Chinese) in both raw and granule forms by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (UPLC-PDA) using multivariate analysis.

Methods: Aqueous extracts of the raw herb (collected from six different sources in China) and granule products (purchased in China, Taiwan and Australia) were re-extracted with methanol to remove water-soluble excipients. Five compounds (ginsenosides Rg1, Rg2, Rd and Rb1 and notoginsenoside NR1) in the methanolic extracts were quantified by TLC and UPLC-PDA. Multivariate statistical analysis using hierarchical component analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine the similarities between the granule products and raw herbs. A 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assay was used to measure the antioxidant capacities of the extracts.

Results: HCA and PCA of the TLC analysis clustered the granule products into one group. By UPLC analysis, the raw herbs and two of the granule products (G7 and G12) were allocated into Group 1 and the rest of the granule products into Group 2. The contents of the five marker compounds in Group 1 were higher than Group 2 and also exhibited stronger ABTS activity (P = 0.005). By Pearson correlation, the contents of the five compounds in the samples were positively and significantly correlated to their antioxidant activities.

Conclusions: UPLC was more efficient than TLC for the simultaneous determination of the five major compounds in Sanqi products in terms of linearity, higher sensitivity and repeatability. The statistical analysis of the samples by HCA and PCA revealed that the contents of the marker compounds were significantly higher in the raw herb group than the granule group.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

PCA biplot (loading and score plot) of Sanqi raw herb and granule extracts analysed by (a) TLC and (b) UPLC. a From the TLC biplot, R1 to R4 demonstrated a higher amount of the compounds (Cluster 1), especially R4 (highest amount of Rd and Rg2). R5 and R6 were closely distributed with the granules (Cluster 2). b For UPLC, Group 1 containing the raw herbs, G7 and G12 which possessed higher amounts of the five compounds, whilst Group 2 contained the rest of the granules
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4477300&req=5

Fig3: PCA biplot (loading and score plot) of Sanqi raw herb and granule extracts analysed by (a) TLC and (b) UPLC. a From the TLC biplot, R1 to R4 demonstrated a higher amount of the compounds (Cluster 1), especially R4 (highest amount of Rd and Rg2). R5 and R6 were closely distributed with the granules (Cluster 2). b For UPLC, Group 1 containing the raw herbs, G7 and G12 which possessed higher amounts of the five compounds, whilst Group 2 contained the rest of the granules

Mentions: PCA was also applied to differentiate samples by displaying them as coordinates in maps based on the contents of the five marker compounds. In the PCA biplot, each point represents an individual sample and the red line represents the contribution of each original variable to the score of two major PCs (Fig. 3). For TLC, PC1 represented up to 82.73 % of the total variance and PC2 (10.64 %) cumulatively explained up to 93.37 % of total variance. The distribution of the samples based on PC1 was due to the variance from all the markers compounds, while the separation of samples by PC2 was based on the contents of Rd and Rg2. The TLC biplot differentiated the raw herbs and granules. Samples R1 to R4 (Cluster 1) showed higher contents of all the marker compounds than the other samples. In particular, R4 had the highest contents of Rd and Rg2. Samples R5 and R6 were plotted close to the granules (Cluster 2).Fig. 3


A multivariate analysis on the comparison of raw notoginseng (Sanqi) and its granule products by thin-layer chromatography and ultra-performance liquid chromatography.

Zhou X, Razmovski-Naumovski V, Chan K - Chin Med (2015)

PCA biplot (loading and score plot) of Sanqi raw herb and granule extracts analysed by (a) TLC and (b) UPLC. a From the TLC biplot, R1 to R4 demonstrated a higher amount of the compounds (Cluster 1), especially R4 (highest amount of Rd and Rg2). R5 and R6 were closely distributed with the granules (Cluster 2). b For UPLC, Group 1 containing the raw herbs, G7 and G12 which possessed higher amounts of the five compounds, whilst Group 2 contained the rest of the granules
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4477300&req=5

Fig3: PCA biplot (loading and score plot) of Sanqi raw herb and granule extracts analysed by (a) TLC and (b) UPLC. a From the TLC biplot, R1 to R4 demonstrated a higher amount of the compounds (Cluster 1), especially R4 (highest amount of Rd and Rg2). R5 and R6 were closely distributed with the granules (Cluster 2). b For UPLC, Group 1 containing the raw herbs, G7 and G12 which possessed higher amounts of the five compounds, whilst Group 2 contained the rest of the granules
Mentions: PCA was also applied to differentiate samples by displaying them as coordinates in maps based on the contents of the five marker compounds. In the PCA biplot, each point represents an individual sample and the red line represents the contribution of each original variable to the score of two major PCs (Fig. 3). For TLC, PC1 represented up to 82.73 % of the total variance and PC2 (10.64 %) cumulatively explained up to 93.37 % of total variance. The distribution of the samples based on PC1 was due to the variance from all the markers compounds, while the separation of samples by PC2 was based on the contents of Rd and Rg2. The TLC biplot differentiated the raw herbs and granules. Samples R1 to R4 (Cluster 1) showed higher contents of all the marker compounds than the other samples. In particular, R4 had the highest contents of Rd and Rg2. Samples R5 and R6 were plotted close to the granules (Cluster 2).Fig. 3

Bottom Line: The contents of the five marker compounds in Group 1 were higher than Group 2 and also exhibited stronger ABTS activity (P = 0.005).By Pearson correlation, the contents of the five compounds in the samples were positively and significantly correlated to their antioxidant activities.UPLC was more efficient than TLC for the simultaneous determination of the five major compounds in Sanqi products in terms of linearity, higher sensitivity and repeatability.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The National Institute of Complementary Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 2751 Australia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Granule products produced from medicinal herbs are gaining popularity. However, there have been few studies comparing the quality or efficacy of granules with those of herbal formulations. This study aims to compare commercially available notoginseng (Sanqi in Chinese) in both raw and granule forms by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (UPLC-PDA) using multivariate analysis.

Methods: Aqueous extracts of the raw herb (collected from six different sources in China) and granule products (purchased in China, Taiwan and Australia) were re-extracted with methanol to remove water-soluble excipients. Five compounds (ginsenosides Rg1, Rg2, Rd and Rb1 and notoginsenoside NR1) in the methanolic extracts were quantified by TLC and UPLC-PDA. Multivariate statistical analysis using hierarchical component analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine the similarities between the granule products and raw herbs. A 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assay was used to measure the antioxidant capacities of the extracts.

Results: HCA and PCA of the TLC analysis clustered the granule products into one group. By UPLC analysis, the raw herbs and two of the granule products (G7 and G12) were allocated into Group 1 and the rest of the granule products into Group 2. The contents of the five marker compounds in Group 1 were higher than Group 2 and also exhibited stronger ABTS activity (P = 0.005). By Pearson correlation, the contents of the five compounds in the samples were positively and significantly correlated to their antioxidant activities.

Conclusions: UPLC was more efficient than TLC for the simultaneous determination of the five major compounds in Sanqi products in terms of linearity, higher sensitivity and repeatability. The statistical analysis of the samples by HCA and PCA revealed that the contents of the marker compounds were significantly higher in the raw herb group than the granule group.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus