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Human biting activity, spatial-temporal distribution and malaria vector role of Anopheles calderoni in the southwest of Colombia.

Orjuela LI, Ahumada ML, Avila I, Herrera S, Beier JC, Quiñones ML - Malar. J. (2015)

Bottom Line: Larvae of An. calderoni were found in four localities in 12 out of 244 breeding sites inspected.Other species found were Anopheles albimanus (54.7%), Anopheles apicimacula (2.1%), Anopheles neivai (1.7%), and Anopheles argyritarsis (0.2%).This represents an overall sporozoite rate of 0.1% and an annual entomological inoculation rate of 2.84 infective bites/human/year.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Salud Pública, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, DC, Colombia. loriza1983@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Anopheles calderoni was first recognized in Colombia in 2010 as this species had been misidentified as Anopheles punctimacula due to morphological similarities. An. calderoni is considered a malaria vector in Peru and has been found naturally infected with Plasmodium falciparum in Colombia. However, its biting behaviour, population dynamics and epidemiological importance have not been well described for Colombia.

Methods: To assess the contribution of An. calderoni to malaria transmission and its human biting behaviour and spatial/temporal distribution in the southwest of Colombia, human landing catches (HLC) and larval collections were carried out in a cross-sectional, entomological study in 22 localities between 2011 and 2012, and a longitudinal study was performed in the Boca de Prieta locality in Olaya Herrera municipality between July 2012 and June 2013. All mosquitoes determined as An. calderoni were tested by ELISA to establish infection with Plasmodium spp.

Results: Larvae of An. calderoni were found in four localities in 12 out of 244 breeding sites inspected. An. calderoni adults were collected in 14 out of 22 localities during the cross-sectional study and represented 41.3% (459 of 1,111) of the collected adult specimens. Other species found were Anopheles albimanus (54.7%), Anopheles apicimacula (2.1%), Anopheles neivai (1.7%), and Anopheles argyritarsis (0.2%). In the localities that reported the highest malaria Annual Parasite Index (>10/1,000 inhabitants) during the year of sampling, An. calderoni was the predominant species (>90% of the specimens collected). In the longitudinal study, 1,528 An. calderoni were collected by HLC with highest biting rates in February, May and June 2013, periods of high precipitation. In general, the species showed a preference to bite outdoors (p < 0.001). In Boca de Prieta, two specimens of An. calderoni were ELISA positive for Plasmodium circumsporozoite protein: one for P. falciparum and one for Plasmodium vivax VK-210. This represents an overall sporozoite rate of 0.1% and an annual entomological inoculation rate of 2.84 infective bites/human/year.

Conclusions: This study shows that An. calderoni is a primary malaria vector in the southwest of Colombia. Its observed preference for outdoor biting is a major challenge for malaria control.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Anopheles species distribution in Nariño State, related to the Annual Parasite Index of each municipality. The precise locations names of the 22 sampled sites are in Table 1.
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Fig1: Anopheles species distribution in Nariño State, related to the Annual Parasite Index of each municipality. The precise locations names of the 22 sampled sites are in Table 1.

Mentions: The southwest region of Colombia, Nariño State, is considered one of the highest malaria-endemic areas in Colombia. It is located on the border with the Republic of Ecuador and has an area of 33,268 sq km representing 2.9% of the national territory [16]. Administratively, it is divided in five sub-regions; the localities chosen for this study are situated in the Pacific Coast sub-region (Figure 1).Figure 1


Human biting activity, spatial-temporal distribution and malaria vector role of Anopheles calderoni in the southwest of Colombia.

Orjuela LI, Ahumada ML, Avila I, Herrera S, Beier JC, Quiñones ML - Malar. J. (2015)

Anopheles species distribution in Nariño State, related to the Annual Parasite Index of each municipality. The precise locations names of the 22 sampled sites are in Table 1.
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4477298&req=5

Fig1: Anopheles species distribution in Nariño State, related to the Annual Parasite Index of each municipality. The precise locations names of the 22 sampled sites are in Table 1.
Mentions: The southwest region of Colombia, Nariño State, is considered one of the highest malaria-endemic areas in Colombia. It is located on the border with the Republic of Ecuador and has an area of 33,268 sq km representing 2.9% of the national territory [16]. Administratively, it is divided in five sub-regions; the localities chosen for this study are situated in the Pacific Coast sub-region (Figure 1).Figure 1

Bottom Line: Larvae of An. calderoni were found in four localities in 12 out of 244 breeding sites inspected.Other species found were Anopheles albimanus (54.7%), Anopheles apicimacula (2.1%), Anopheles neivai (1.7%), and Anopheles argyritarsis (0.2%).This represents an overall sporozoite rate of 0.1% and an annual entomological inoculation rate of 2.84 infective bites/human/year.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Salud Pública, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, DC, Colombia. loriza1983@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Anopheles calderoni was first recognized in Colombia in 2010 as this species had been misidentified as Anopheles punctimacula due to morphological similarities. An. calderoni is considered a malaria vector in Peru and has been found naturally infected with Plasmodium falciparum in Colombia. However, its biting behaviour, population dynamics and epidemiological importance have not been well described for Colombia.

Methods: To assess the contribution of An. calderoni to malaria transmission and its human biting behaviour and spatial/temporal distribution in the southwest of Colombia, human landing catches (HLC) and larval collections were carried out in a cross-sectional, entomological study in 22 localities between 2011 and 2012, and a longitudinal study was performed in the Boca de Prieta locality in Olaya Herrera municipality between July 2012 and June 2013. All mosquitoes determined as An. calderoni were tested by ELISA to establish infection with Plasmodium spp.

Results: Larvae of An. calderoni were found in four localities in 12 out of 244 breeding sites inspected. An. calderoni adults were collected in 14 out of 22 localities during the cross-sectional study and represented 41.3% (459 of 1,111) of the collected adult specimens. Other species found were Anopheles albimanus (54.7%), Anopheles apicimacula (2.1%), Anopheles neivai (1.7%), and Anopheles argyritarsis (0.2%). In the localities that reported the highest malaria Annual Parasite Index (>10/1,000 inhabitants) during the year of sampling, An. calderoni was the predominant species (>90% of the specimens collected). In the longitudinal study, 1,528 An. calderoni were collected by HLC with highest biting rates in February, May and June 2013, periods of high precipitation. In general, the species showed a preference to bite outdoors (p < 0.001). In Boca de Prieta, two specimens of An. calderoni were ELISA positive for Plasmodium circumsporozoite protein: one for P. falciparum and one for Plasmodium vivax VK-210. This represents an overall sporozoite rate of 0.1% and an annual entomological inoculation rate of 2.84 infective bites/human/year.

Conclusions: This study shows that An. calderoni is a primary malaria vector in the southwest of Colombia. Its observed preference for outdoor biting is a major challenge for malaria control.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus