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An Organ System Approach to Explore the Antioxidative, Anti-Inflammatory, and Cytoprotective Actions of Resveratrol.

Malhotra A, Bath S, Elbarbry F - Oxid Med Cell Longev (2015)

Bottom Line: It is a bioactive molecule with physiological effects on multiple organ systems.Its effects range from the neuroprotective to the nephroprotective, including cardiovascular, neuronal, and antineoplastic responses as a part of its broad spectrum of action.We summarize the known anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and cytoprotective effects of resveratrol across disparate organ systems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Pharmacy, Pacific University, 222 SE 8th Avenue, Suite 451, Hillsboro, OR 97123, USA.

ABSTRACT
Resveratrol is a phenolic phytochemical, with a stilbene backbone, derived from edible plants such as grape and peanut. It is a bioactive molecule with physiological effects on multiple organ systems. Its effects range from the neuroprotective to the nephroprotective, including cardiovascular, neuronal, and antineoplastic responses as a part of its broad spectrum of action. In this review, we examine the effects of resveratrol on the following organ systems: the central nervous system, including neurological pathology such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease; the cardiovascular system, including disorders such as atherosclerosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy; the kidneys, including primary and secondary nephropathies and nephrolithiasis; multiple forms of cancer; and metabolic syndromes including diabetes. We emphasize commonalities in extracellular matrix protein alterations and intracellular signal transduction system induction following resveratrol treatment. We summarize the known anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and cytoprotective effects of resveratrol across disparate organ systems. Additionally, we analyze the available literature regarding the pharmacokinetics of resveratrol formulations used in these studies. Finally, we critically examine select clinical trials documenting a lack of effect following resveratrol treatment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The chemistry of resveratrol. (a) shows the trans- and cis-isomers of resveratrol. (b) shows the stilbene C6-C2-C6 backbone, which is chemically modified in resveratrol. (c) describes the overall biosynthetic process in plants, beginning with a reaction of coumaroyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA catalyzed by stilbene synthase.
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fig1: The chemistry of resveratrol. (a) shows the trans- and cis-isomers of resveratrol. (b) shows the stilbene C6-C2-C6 backbone, which is chemically modified in resveratrol. (c) describes the overall biosynthetic process in plants, beginning with a reaction of coumaroyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA catalyzed by stilbene synthase.

Mentions: Resveratrol is a polyphenolic phytochemical that is biosynthesized by certain edible plants such as grape, peanut, and berry in response to phytogenic insults or pathogens. As shown in Figure 1, chemically it is 3,5,4′-trihydroxystilbene, a stilbene derivative, which is a phenylpropanoid with a C6-C2-C6 general structural formula. It is found as two isomeric structures in nature, the cis- and trans-isoforms, the trans-isoform being convertible to cis-isoform by heating. Its biosynthetic pathway begins with coumaroyl-CoA and 3-malonyl CoA and involves the enzyme stilbene synthase, which leads to a general biological yield of 50 to 400 μg resveratrol per g wet weight of leaves [1, 2]. Since it is biosynthesized to a greater extent in the lignified parts of these plants, the process of crushing and mashing grapes for the purpose of wine making results in relative enrichment of resveratrol in wine, making the latter a significant dietary source of resveratrol. The high resveratrol level in red wine was postulated as a factor in the “French Paradox”, where epidemiological data revealed an apparent disconnect between French patterns of low rates of cardiovascular disease despite their high saturated fat consumption. Interestingly, based on its function in plants, resveratrol may be classified in the general category of low molecular weight compounds known as phytoalexins, which are phytochemicals possessing an antimicrobial and antioxidant function.


An Organ System Approach to Explore the Antioxidative, Anti-Inflammatory, and Cytoprotective Actions of Resveratrol.

Malhotra A, Bath S, Elbarbry F - Oxid Med Cell Longev (2015)

The chemistry of resveratrol. (a) shows the trans- and cis-isomers of resveratrol. (b) shows the stilbene C6-C2-C6 backbone, which is chemically modified in resveratrol. (c) describes the overall biosynthetic process in plants, beginning with a reaction of coumaroyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA catalyzed by stilbene synthase.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4477248&req=5

fig1: The chemistry of resveratrol. (a) shows the trans- and cis-isomers of resveratrol. (b) shows the stilbene C6-C2-C6 backbone, which is chemically modified in resveratrol. (c) describes the overall biosynthetic process in plants, beginning with a reaction of coumaroyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA catalyzed by stilbene synthase.
Mentions: Resveratrol is a polyphenolic phytochemical that is biosynthesized by certain edible plants such as grape, peanut, and berry in response to phytogenic insults or pathogens. As shown in Figure 1, chemically it is 3,5,4′-trihydroxystilbene, a stilbene derivative, which is a phenylpropanoid with a C6-C2-C6 general structural formula. It is found as two isomeric structures in nature, the cis- and trans-isoforms, the trans-isoform being convertible to cis-isoform by heating. Its biosynthetic pathway begins with coumaroyl-CoA and 3-malonyl CoA and involves the enzyme stilbene synthase, which leads to a general biological yield of 50 to 400 μg resveratrol per g wet weight of leaves [1, 2]. Since it is biosynthesized to a greater extent in the lignified parts of these plants, the process of crushing and mashing grapes for the purpose of wine making results in relative enrichment of resveratrol in wine, making the latter a significant dietary source of resveratrol. The high resveratrol level in red wine was postulated as a factor in the “French Paradox”, where epidemiological data revealed an apparent disconnect between French patterns of low rates of cardiovascular disease despite their high saturated fat consumption. Interestingly, based on its function in plants, resveratrol may be classified in the general category of low molecular weight compounds known as phytoalexins, which are phytochemicals possessing an antimicrobial and antioxidant function.

Bottom Line: It is a bioactive molecule with physiological effects on multiple organ systems.Its effects range from the neuroprotective to the nephroprotective, including cardiovascular, neuronal, and antineoplastic responses as a part of its broad spectrum of action.We summarize the known anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and cytoprotective effects of resveratrol across disparate organ systems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Pharmacy, Pacific University, 222 SE 8th Avenue, Suite 451, Hillsboro, OR 97123, USA.

ABSTRACT
Resveratrol is a phenolic phytochemical, with a stilbene backbone, derived from edible plants such as grape and peanut. It is a bioactive molecule with physiological effects on multiple organ systems. Its effects range from the neuroprotective to the nephroprotective, including cardiovascular, neuronal, and antineoplastic responses as a part of its broad spectrum of action. In this review, we examine the effects of resveratrol on the following organ systems: the central nervous system, including neurological pathology such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease; the cardiovascular system, including disorders such as atherosclerosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy; the kidneys, including primary and secondary nephropathies and nephrolithiasis; multiple forms of cancer; and metabolic syndromes including diabetes. We emphasize commonalities in extracellular matrix protein alterations and intracellular signal transduction system induction following resveratrol treatment. We summarize the known anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and cytoprotective effects of resveratrol across disparate organ systems. Additionally, we analyze the available literature regarding the pharmacokinetics of resveratrol formulations used in these studies. Finally, we critically examine select clinical trials documenting a lack of effect following resveratrol treatment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus