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Potential Effects of Pomegranate Polyphenols in Cancer Prevention and Therapy.

Turrini E, Ferruzzi L, Fimognari C - Oxid Med Cell Longev (2015)

Bottom Line: Pomegranate evokes antiproliferative, anti-invasive, and antimetastatic effects, induces apoptosis through the modulation of Bcl-2 proteins, upregulates p21 and p27, and downregulates cyclin-cdk network.Accordingly, some exploratory clinical studies investigating pomegranate found a trend of efficacy in increasing prostate-specific antigen doubling time in patients with prostate cancer.However, the genotoxicity reported for pomegranate raised certain concerns over its safety and an accurate assessment of the risk/benefit should be performed before suggesting the use of pomegranate or its polyphenols for cancer-related therapeutic purposes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department for Life Quality Studies, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, 47921 Rimini, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Cancer is the second leading cause of death and is becoming the leading one in old age. Vegetable and fruit consumption is inversely associated with cancer incidence and mortality. Currently, interest in a number of fruits high in polyphenols has been raised due to their reported chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic potential. Pomegranate has been shown to exert anticancer activity, which is generally attributed to its high content of polyphenols. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of known targets and mechanisms along with a critical evaluation of pomegranate polyphenols as future anticancer agents. Pomegranate evokes antiproliferative, anti-invasive, and antimetastatic effects, induces apoptosis through the modulation of Bcl-2 proteins, upregulates p21 and p27, and downregulates cyclin-cdk network. Furthermore, pomegranate blocks the activation of inflammatory pathways including, but not limited to, the NF-κB pathway. The strongest evidence for its anticancer activity comes from studies on prostate cancer. Accordingly, some exploratory clinical studies investigating pomegranate found a trend of efficacy in increasing prostate-specific antigen doubling time in patients with prostate cancer. However, the genotoxicity reported for pomegranate raised certain concerns over its safety and an accurate assessment of the risk/benefit should be performed before suggesting the use of pomegranate or its polyphenols for cancer-related therapeutic purposes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Molecular targets of pomegranate. The arrows reflect changes in protein levels/activities as well as gene expression.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection


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fig1: Molecular targets of pomegranate. The arrows reflect changes in protein levels/activities as well as gene expression.

Mentions: Accumulating evidence suggests that pomegranate targets a broad spectrum of genes and proteins to suppress cancer growth and progression. The anticancer activity of pomegranate can be seen in a chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic approach. Extensive mechanistic studies were performed to evaluate the anticancer activity of pomegranate and its therapeutic potential in various preclinical models. Two primary mechanisms that have been reported are cell-cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis. Some authors have also found significant inhibition of other important mechanisms involved in cancer development such as angiogenesis and metastasis. Figure 1 illustrates the targets and major mechanisms of pomegranate that have been demonstrated in different cancer models.


Potential Effects of Pomegranate Polyphenols in Cancer Prevention and Therapy.

Turrini E, Ferruzzi L, Fimognari C - Oxid Med Cell Longev (2015)

Molecular targets of pomegranate. The arrows reflect changes in protein levels/activities as well as gene expression.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4477247&req=5

fig1: Molecular targets of pomegranate. The arrows reflect changes in protein levels/activities as well as gene expression.
Mentions: Accumulating evidence suggests that pomegranate targets a broad spectrum of genes and proteins to suppress cancer growth and progression. The anticancer activity of pomegranate can be seen in a chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic approach. Extensive mechanistic studies were performed to evaluate the anticancer activity of pomegranate and its therapeutic potential in various preclinical models. Two primary mechanisms that have been reported are cell-cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis. Some authors have also found significant inhibition of other important mechanisms involved in cancer development such as angiogenesis and metastasis. Figure 1 illustrates the targets and major mechanisms of pomegranate that have been demonstrated in different cancer models.

Bottom Line: Pomegranate evokes antiproliferative, anti-invasive, and antimetastatic effects, induces apoptosis through the modulation of Bcl-2 proteins, upregulates p21 and p27, and downregulates cyclin-cdk network.Accordingly, some exploratory clinical studies investigating pomegranate found a trend of efficacy in increasing prostate-specific antigen doubling time in patients with prostate cancer.However, the genotoxicity reported for pomegranate raised certain concerns over its safety and an accurate assessment of the risk/benefit should be performed before suggesting the use of pomegranate or its polyphenols for cancer-related therapeutic purposes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department for Life Quality Studies, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, 47921 Rimini, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Cancer is the second leading cause of death and is becoming the leading one in old age. Vegetable and fruit consumption is inversely associated with cancer incidence and mortality. Currently, interest in a number of fruits high in polyphenols has been raised due to their reported chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic potential. Pomegranate has been shown to exert anticancer activity, which is generally attributed to its high content of polyphenols. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of known targets and mechanisms along with a critical evaluation of pomegranate polyphenols as future anticancer agents. Pomegranate evokes antiproliferative, anti-invasive, and antimetastatic effects, induces apoptosis through the modulation of Bcl-2 proteins, upregulates p21 and p27, and downregulates cyclin-cdk network. Furthermore, pomegranate blocks the activation of inflammatory pathways including, but not limited to, the NF-κB pathway. The strongest evidence for its anticancer activity comes from studies on prostate cancer. Accordingly, some exploratory clinical studies investigating pomegranate found a trend of efficacy in increasing prostate-specific antigen doubling time in patients with prostate cancer. However, the genotoxicity reported for pomegranate raised certain concerns over its safety and an accurate assessment of the risk/benefit should be performed before suggesting the use of pomegranate or its polyphenols for cancer-related therapeutic purposes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus