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Role of Polyphenols and Other Phytochemicals on Molecular Signaling.

Upadhyay S, Dixit M - Oxid Med Cell Longev (2015)

Bottom Line: Phytochemicals exert their beneficial effects either by reducing the circulating levels of cholesterol or by inhibiting lipid oxidation, while others exhibit anti-inflammatory and antiplatelet activities.Additionally, they reduce neointimal thickening by inhibiting proliferation of smooth muscle cells and also improve endothelium dependent vasorelaxation by modulating bioavailability of nitric-oxide and voltage-gated ion channels.However, detailed and profound knowledge on specific molecular targets of each phytochemical is very important to ensure safe use of these active compounds as a therapeutic agent.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Vascular Biology, Department of Biotechnology, Bhupat and Jyoti Mehta School of Biosciences and Bioengineering Building, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600036, India.

ABSTRACT
Optimized nutrition through supplementation of diet with plant derived phytochemicals has attracted significant attention to prevent the onset of many chronic diseases including cardiovascular impairments, cancer, and metabolic disorder. These phytonutrients alone or in combination with others are believed to impart beneficial effects and play pivotal role in metabolic abnormalities such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hypertension, glucose intolerance, systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress. Epidemiological and preclinical studies demonstrated that fruits, vegetables, and beverages rich in carotenoids, isoflavones, phytoestrogens, and phytosterols delay the onset of atherosclerosis or act as a chemoprotective agent by interacting with the underlying pathomechanisms. Phytochemicals exert their beneficial effects either by reducing the circulating levels of cholesterol or by inhibiting lipid oxidation, while others exhibit anti-inflammatory and antiplatelet activities. Additionally, they reduce neointimal thickening by inhibiting proliferation of smooth muscle cells and also improve endothelium dependent vasorelaxation by modulating bioavailability of nitric-oxide and voltage-gated ion channels. However, detailed and profound knowledge on specific molecular targets of each phytochemical is very important to ensure safe use of these active compounds as a therapeutic agent. Thus, this paper reviews the active antioxidative, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, or antiangiogenesis role of various phytochemicals for prevention of chronic diseases.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The molecular mechanism/signaling targeted by phytochemicals to exert the protective effect: antioxidation, anti-inflammation, antiproliferation, metabolic disorder, and antiangiogenesis.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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fig1: The molecular mechanism/signaling targeted by phytochemicals to exert the protective effect: antioxidation, anti-inflammation, antiproliferation, metabolic disorder, and antiangiogenesis.

Mentions: Relationship between phytochemicals and disease prevention has been a major focus of health research for almost half a century. Epidemiological and clinical studies indicate that the risk of chronic or noncommunicable diseases is reduced by a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and unrefined grains. Other foods such as mono- and polyunsaturated fats, brans, nuts, plant sterols, and soy proteins have all been shown to have a favorable effect on pathogenesis of CVD (e.g., lipid profile and blood pressure lowering effect), cancer, and/or neurodegeneration. The progression in the knowledge of both the disease pathomechanisms and the targeted pathways by dietary components to exert their medicinal effect may provide new avenues to develop dietary strategies to prevent and/or to treat the numerous disorders. Based on the epidemiological and/or clinical evidence, it has been found that phytochemicals and/or naturally occurring active compounds are having broad range of physiological effects, which include reduction of inflammatory cascades, oxidative stress, improved metabolic disorder, vascular homeostasis, or antiproliferation (Figure 1). However, it is still not clear whether an individual component of the diet or a combination of nutrients and dietary habits is responsible for the observed protective effects. Therefore, screening of large scale of potential beneficial molecules present in the regular diet may provide lead molecules that may be used in the future as inexpensive dietary supplements specific to disease prevention. The products being naturally occurring in the markets would be easily available for all strata of the society. This would also open up a huge possibility of herbal product based markets and scopes of employment. The area of phytochemicals and its protective effect will only grow successfully if preclinical and/or clinical research is able to integrate credible science with thorough consumer understanding, uncompromised taste, and convenience, along with awareness about the preventive role of dietary product on the development of chronic diseases.


Role of Polyphenols and Other Phytochemicals on Molecular Signaling.

Upadhyay S, Dixit M - Oxid Med Cell Longev (2015)

The molecular mechanism/signaling targeted by phytochemicals to exert the protective effect: antioxidation, anti-inflammation, antiproliferation, metabolic disorder, and antiangiogenesis.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4477245&req=5

fig1: The molecular mechanism/signaling targeted by phytochemicals to exert the protective effect: antioxidation, anti-inflammation, antiproliferation, metabolic disorder, and antiangiogenesis.
Mentions: Relationship between phytochemicals and disease prevention has been a major focus of health research for almost half a century. Epidemiological and clinical studies indicate that the risk of chronic or noncommunicable diseases is reduced by a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and unrefined grains. Other foods such as mono- and polyunsaturated fats, brans, nuts, plant sterols, and soy proteins have all been shown to have a favorable effect on pathogenesis of CVD (e.g., lipid profile and blood pressure lowering effect), cancer, and/or neurodegeneration. The progression in the knowledge of both the disease pathomechanisms and the targeted pathways by dietary components to exert their medicinal effect may provide new avenues to develop dietary strategies to prevent and/or to treat the numerous disorders. Based on the epidemiological and/or clinical evidence, it has been found that phytochemicals and/or naturally occurring active compounds are having broad range of physiological effects, which include reduction of inflammatory cascades, oxidative stress, improved metabolic disorder, vascular homeostasis, or antiproliferation (Figure 1). However, it is still not clear whether an individual component of the diet or a combination of nutrients and dietary habits is responsible for the observed protective effects. Therefore, screening of large scale of potential beneficial molecules present in the regular diet may provide lead molecules that may be used in the future as inexpensive dietary supplements specific to disease prevention. The products being naturally occurring in the markets would be easily available for all strata of the society. This would also open up a huge possibility of herbal product based markets and scopes of employment. The area of phytochemicals and its protective effect will only grow successfully if preclinical and/or clinical research is able to integrate credible science with thorough consumer understanding, uncompromised taste, and convenience, along with awareness about the preventive role of dietary product on the development of chronic diseases.

Bottom Line: Phytochemicals exert their beneficial effects either by reducing the circulating levels of cholesterol or by inhibiting lipid oxidation, while others exhibit anti-inflammatory and antiplatelet activities.Additionally, they reduce neointimal thickening by inhibiting proliferation of smooth muscle cells and also improve endothelium dependent vasorelaxation by modulating bioavailability of nitric-oxide and voltage-gated ion channels.However, detailed and profound knowledge on specific molecular targets of each phytochemical is very important to ensure safe use of these active compounds as a therapeutic agent.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Vascular Biology, Department of Biotechnology, Bhupat and Jyoti Mehta School of Biosciences and Bioengineering Building, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600036, India.

ABSTRACT
Optimized nutrition through supplementation of diet with plant derived phytochemicals has attracted significant attention to prevent the onset of many chronic diseases including cardiovascular impairments, cancer, and metabolic disorder. These phytonutrients alone or in combination with others are believed to impart beneficial effects and play pivotal role in metabolic abnormalities such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hypertension, glucose intolerance, systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress. Epidemiological and preclinical studies demonstrated that fruits, vegetables, and beverages rich in carotenoids, isoflavones, phytoestrogens, and phytosterols delay the onset of atherosclerosis or act as a chemoprotective agent by interacting with the underlying pathomechanisms. Phytochemicals exert their beneficial effects either by reducing the circulating levels of cholesterol or by inhibiting lipid oxidation, while others exhibit anti-inflammatory and antiplatelet activities. Additionally, they reduce neointimal thickening by inhibiting proliferation of smooth muscle cells and also improve endothelium dependent vasorelaxation by modulating bioavailability of nitric-oxide and voltage-gated ion channels. However, detailed and profound knowledge on specific molecular targets of each phytochemical is very important to ensure safe use of these active compounds as a therapeutic agent. Thus, this paper reviews the active antioxidative, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, or antiangiogenesis role of various phytochemicals for prevention of chronic diseases.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus