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Flaxseed Oil Containing α -Linolenic Acid Ester of Plant Sterol Improved Atherosclerosis in ApoE Deficient Mice.

Han H, Yan P, Chen L, Luo C, Gao H, Deng Q, Zheng M, Shi Y, Liu L - Oxid Med Cell Longev (2015)

Bottom Line: Dietary α-linolenic acid in flaxseed oil is associated with a reduction in cardiovascular events through its hypolipidemic and anti-inflammation properties.Results demonstrated that flaxseed oil containing ALA-PS was synergistically interaction in ameliorating atherosclerosis as well as optimizing overall lipid levels, inhibiting inflammation and reducing oxidative stress.These data were associated with the modification effects on expression levels of genes involved in lipid metabolism (PPARα, HMGCR, and SREBPs), inflammation (IL-6, TNF, MCP-1, and VCAM-1), and oxidative stress (NADPH oxidase).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Hubei Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China ; Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection and State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubating), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China.

ABSTRACT
Plant sterols (PS) have potential preventive function in atherosclerosis due to their cholesterol-lowering ability. Dietary α-linolenic acid in flaxseed oil is associated with a reduction in cardiovascular events through its hypolipidemic and anti-inflammation properties. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of flaxseed oil containing α-linolenic acid ester of PS (ALA-PS) on atherosclerosis and investigate the underlying mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were administered a regular diet and apoE knockout (apoE-KO) mice were given a high fat diet alone or supplemented with 5% flaxseed oil with or without 3.3% ALA-PS for 18 weeks. Results demonstrated that flaxseed oil containing ALA-PS was synergistically interaction in ameliorating atherosclerosis as well as optimizing overall lipid levels, inhibiting inflammation and reducing oxidative stress. These data were associated with the modification effects on expression levels of genes involved in lipid metabolism (PPARα, HMGCR, and SREBPs), inflammation (IL-6, TNF, MCP-1, and VCAM-1), and oxidative stress (NADPH oxidase).

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effects of FO+ALA-PS on mRNA and protein expressions of aortic VCAM-1 (a-b), TNF-α (c-d), MCP-1 (e-f), and IL-6 (g-h) in mice. After combining treated flaxseed oil with ALA-PS for 18 weeks, total RNA was extracted from aorta of mice by Trizol. VCAM-1, TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-6 mRNA expressions were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The mRNA of β-actin was quantified as an endogenous control. Aortic lysates were prepared and immunoblotted with corresponding antibody, respectively. Blotting with anti-β-actin was used as a protein loading control. VCAM-1, TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-6 are presented as fold change relative to Control. Representative immunoblots are shown. Values are given as mean ± standard deviation of the mean (n = 3). aP < 0.05 versus the control; bP < 0.05 versus the HFD group; cP < 0.05 versus the FO group.
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fig5: Effects of FO+ALA-PS on mRNA and protein expressions of aortic VCAM-1 (a-b), TNF-α (c-d), MCP-1 (e-f), and IL-6 (g-h) in mice. After combining treated flaxseed oil with ALA-PS for 18 weeks, total RNA was extracted from aorta of mice by Trizol. VCAM-1, TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-6 mRNA expressions were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The mRNA of β-actin was quantified as an endogenous control. Aortic lysates were prepared and immunoblotted with corresponding antibody, respectively. Blotting with anti-β-actin was used as a protein loading control. VCAM-1, TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-6 are presented as fold change relative to Control. Representative immunoblots are shown. Values are given as mean ± standard deviation of the mean (n = 3). aP < 0.05 versus the control; bP < 0.05 versus the HFD group; cP < 0.05 versus the FO group.

Mentions: Compared to HFD, mice administrated by flaxseed oil had 30.6% and 11.9% less plasma IL-6 and VCAM-1, while this decrease was 56.3% and 29.3% in mice given FO+ALA-PS. In addition, FO+ALA-PS had a significant decline effect on plasma sVCAM-1, TNF-α, and MCP-1 which were initially increased by HFD but not diminished by flaxseed oil intervention. However, there were no significant differences observed in plasma IL-10 in the four groups (Figure 4). On molecular level, we compared the ability of FO and FO+ALA-PS treatment in modulating aortic inflammation indicators. As shown in Figure 5, FO+ALA-PS was more effective than FO in decreasing mRNA and protein expressions of aortic VCAM-1, TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-6 elevated by HFD. In an effort to further investigate molecular pathways involved in inflammation induction by HFD and the concomitant protection exerted by FO+ALA-PS on this process, we also examined the impact of FO+ALA-PS on the key inflammatory cytokines in circulating monocytes. The results clearly indicated that MCP-1, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and IL-6 were upregulated in response to HFD, while such an effect was almost completely counteracted by the FO+ALA-PS supplement. However, flaxseed oil added alone only significantly modified the mRNA and protein expression of IL-1β (Figure 6).


Flaxseed Oil Containing α -Linolenic Acid Ester of Plant Sterol Improved Atherosclerosis in ApoE Deficient Mice.

Han H, Yan P, Chen L, Luo C, Gao H, Deng Q, Zheng M, Shi Y, Liu L - Oxid Med Cell Longev (2015)

Effects of FO+ALA-PS on mRNA and protein expressions of aortic VCAM-1 (a-b), TNF-α (c-d), MCP-1 (e-f), and IL-6 (g-h) in mice. After combining treated flaxseed oil with ALA-PS for 18 weeks, total RNA was extracted from aorta of mice by Trizol. VCAM-1, TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-6 mRNA expressions were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The mRNA of β-actin was quantified as an endogenous control. Aortic lysates were prepared and immunoblotted with corresponding antibody, respectively. Blotting with anti-β-actin was used as a protein loading control. VCAM-1, TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-6 are presented as fold change relative to Control. Representative immunoblots are shown. Values are given as mean ± standard deviation of the mean (n = 3). aP < 0.05 versus the control; bP < 0.05 versus the HFD group; cP < 0.05 versus the FO group.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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fig5: Effects of FO+ALA-PS on mRNA and protein expressions of aortic VCAM-1 (a-b), TNF-α (c-d), MCP-1 (e-f), and IL-6 (g-h) in mice. After combining treated flaxseed oil with ALA-PS for 18 weeks, total RNA was extracted from aorta of mice by Trizol. VCAM-1, TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-6 mRNA expressions were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The mRNA of β-actin was quantified as an endogenous control. Aortic lysates were prepared and immunoblotted with corresponding antibody, respectively. Blotting with anti-β-actin was used as a protein loading control. VCAM-1, TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-6 are presented as fold change relative to Control. Representative immunoblots are shown. Values are given as mean ± standard deviation of the mean (n = 3). aP < 0.05 versus the control; bP < 0.05 versus the HFD group; cP < 0.05 versus the FO group.
Mentions: Compared to HFD, mice administrated by flaxseed oil had 30.6% and 11.9% less plasma IL-6 and VCAM-1, while this decrease was 56.3% and 29.3% in mice given FO+ALA-PS. In addition, FO+ALA-PS had a significant decline effect on plasma sVCAM-1, TNF-α, and MCP-1 which were initially increased by HFD but not diminished by flaxseed oil intervention. However, there were no significant differences observed in plasma IL-10 in the four groups (Figure 4). On molecular level, we compared the ability of FO and FO+ALA-PS treatment in modulating aortic inflammation indicators. As shown in Figure 5, FO+ALA-PS was more effective than FO in decreasing mRNA and protein expressions of aortic VCAM-1, TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-6 elevated by HFD. In an effort to further investigate molecular pathways involved in inflammation induction by HFD and the concomitant protection exerted by FO+ALA-PS on this process, we also examined the impact of FO+ALA-PS on the key inflammatory cytokines in circulating monocytes. The results clearly indicated that MCP-1, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and IL-6 were upregulated in response to HFD, while such an effect was almost completely counteracted by the FO+ALA-PS supplement. However, flaxseed oil added alone only significantly modified the mRNA and protein expression of IL-1β (Figure 6).

Bottom Line: Dietary α-linolenic acid in flaxseed oil is associated with a reduction in cardiovascular events through its hypolipidemic and anti-inflammation properties.Results demonstrated that flaxseed oil containing ALA-PS was synergistically interaction in ameliorating atherosclerosis as well as optimizing overall lipid levels, inhibiting inflammation and reducing oxidative stress.These data were associated with the modification effects on expression levels of genes involved in lipid metabolism (PPARα, HMGCR, and SREBPs), inflammation (IL-6, TNF, MCP-1, and VCAM-1), and oxidative stress (NADPH oxidase).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Hubei Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China ; Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection and State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubating), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China.

ABSTRACT
Plant sterols (PS) have potential preventive function in atherosclerosis due to their cholesterol-lowering ability. Dietary α-linolenic acid in flaxseed oil is associated with a reduction in cardiovascular events through its hypolipidemic and anti-inflammation properties. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of flaxseed oil containing α-linolenic acid ester of PS (ALA-PS) on atherosclerosis and investigate the underlying mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were administered a regular diet and apoE knockout (apoE-KO) mice were given a high fat diet alone or supplemented with 5% flaxseed oil with or without 3.3% ALA-PS for 18 weeks. Results demonstrated that flaxseed oil containing ALA-PS was synergistically interaction in ameliorating atherosclerosis as well as optimizing overall lipid levels, inhibiting inflammation and reducing oxidative stress. These data were associated with the modification effects on expression levels of genes involved in lipid metabolism (PPARα, HMGCR, and SREBPs), inflammation (IL-6, TNF, MCP-1, and VCAM-1), and oxidative stress (NADPH oxidase).

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus