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Anticancer Properties of Phyllanthus emblica (Indian Gooseberry).

Zhao T, Sun Q, Marques M, Witcher M - Oxid Med Cell Longev (2015)

Bottom Line: It remains unclear how polyphenols from Phyllanthus emblica can incorporate both cancer-preventative and antitumor properties.The antioxidant function of Phyllanthus emblica can account for some of the anticancer activity, but clearly other mechanisms are equally important.Herein, we provide a brief overview of the evidence supporting anticancer activity of Indian Gooseberry extracts, suggest possible mechanisms for these actions, and provide future directions that might be taken to translate these findings clinically.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Lady Davis Institute The Jewish General Hospital, 3755 Chemin de la Côte-Sainte-Catherine, Montreal, QC, Canada H3T 1E2 ; The Departments of Oncology and Experimental Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada H3T 1E2.

ABSTRACT
There is a wealth of information emanating from both in vitro and in vivo studies indicating fruit extract of the Phyllanthus emblica tree, commonly referred to as Indian Gooseberries, has potent anticancer properties. The bioactivity in this extract is thought to be principally mediated by polyphenols, especially tannins and flavonoids. It remains unclear how polyphenols from Phyllanthus emblica can incorporate both cancer-preventative and antitumor properties. The antioxidant function of Phyllanthus emblica can account for some of the anticancer activity, but clearly other mechanisms are equally important. Herein, we provide a brief overview of the evidence supporting anticancer activity of Indian Gooseberry extracts, suggest possible mechanisms for these actions, and provide future directions that might be taken to translate these findings clinically.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Cytotoxic effects of Phyllanthus emblica  (Indian Gooseberry)  extract against triple-negative breast cancer cells. (a) MCF10A cells represent untransformed mammary epithelial cells. All other cell lines represent triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. Growth media for all cell lines were used according to ATCC recommendations. 104 cells were seeded in 24-well plates. 24 hours after plating, Indian Gooseberry extract (Saberry, Sabinsa Corporation) dissolved in PBS was added daily to fresh media at the indicated concentrations or PBS to control cells. Cell viability was measured using trypan blue exclusion with a hemocytometer after a five-day exposure period. Experiments were carried out multiple times in triplicate. Error bars represent SEM. P values for growth inhibition of MDA-MB-435, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-231, and BT20 cells exposed to 100 µg/mL Phyllanthus emblica compared to control cells were all <0.05 (denoted by ∗∗∗). MCF10A cells exposed to the same concentration showed no significant change. (b) Visualization of MDA-MB-468 cells after five-day exposure to Phyllanthus emblica extract at 10x magnification.
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fig1: Cytotoxic effects of Phyllanthus emblica  (Indian Gooseberry)  extract against triple-negative breast cancer cells. (a) MCF10A cells represent untransformed mammary epithelial cells. All other cell lines represent triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. Growth media for all cell lines were used according to ATCC recommendations. 104 cells were seeded in 24-well plates. 24 hours after plating, Indian Gooseberry extract (Saberry, Sabinsa Corporation) dissolved in PBS was added daily to fresh media at the indicated concentrations or PBS to control cells. Cell viability was measured using trypan blue exclusion with a hemocytometer after a five-day exposure period. Experiments were carried out multiple times in triplicate. Error bars represent SEM. P values for growth inhibition of MDA-MB-435, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-231, and BT20 cells exposed to 100 µg/mL Phyllanthus emblica compared to control cells were all <0.05 (denoted by ∗∗∗). MCF10A cells exposed to the same concentration showed no significant change. (b) Visualization of MDA-MB-468 cells after five-day exposure to Phyllanthus emblica extract at 10x magnification.

Mentions: Phyllanthus emblica extracts have been demonstrated to have potent tumor repressive properties against a number of cancer types both in vitro and in vivo. Preclinical evidence using a diverse panel of cancer cell lines shows aqueous extract from Phyllanthus emblica berries induced apoptosis at concentrations ranging from 50 to 100 micrograms/mL [24]. In this study, normal fibroblasts were also included and showed 4-fold lower sensitivity to these extracts. This is in keeping with our own data comparing aqueous Phyllanthus emblica berry extracts (generous gift of Sabinsa Corporation) against triple-negative breast cancer cells (Figures 1(a) and 1(b)). We see exposure of these cells to doses of the soluble extract ranging from 25 to 100 micrograms/mL results in significant cytotoxicity (Figures 1(a) and 1(b)), but almost no effect is seen against normal breast epithelial cells (MCF10A). Other reports have shown extracts from blueberries and strawberries both limit the proliferation of triple-negative breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo [25, 26]. However, neither of these extracts showed a considerable degree of antiproliferative activity at concentrations lower than 500 micrograms/mL, whereas soluble Phyllanthus emblica berry extract was potent even at 50 micrograms/mL in at least three (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435, and MDA-MB-468) of the cell lines we tested. The sparsity of cells after exposure to the berry extract and appearance of debris indicate cells are undergoing apoptosis as opposed to cytostatic mechanisms of growth arrest. These data indicate Phyllanthus emblica extract or a constituent therein represents a potential treatment for breast cancer with low toxicity against nontransformed cells.


Anticancer Properties of Phyllanthus emblica (Indian Gooseberry).

Zhao T, Sun Q, Marques M, Witcher M - Oxid Med Cell Longev (2015)

Cytotoxic effects of Phyllanthus emblica  (Indian Gooseberry)  extract against triple-negative breast cancer cells. (a) MCF10A cells represent untransformed mammary epithelial cells. All other cell lines represent triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. Growth media for all cell lines were used according to ATCC recommendations. 104 cells were seeded in 24-well plates. 24 hours after plating, Indian Gooseberry extract (Saberry, Sabinsa Corporation) dissolved in PBS was added daily to fresh media at the indicated concentrations or PBS to control cells. Cell viability was measured using trypan blue exclusion with a hemocytometer after a five-day exposure period. Experiments were carried out multiple times in triplicate. Error bars represent SEM. P values for growth inhibition of MDA-MB-435, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-231, and BT20 cells exposed to 100 µg/mL Phyllanthus emblica compared to control cells were all <0.05 (denoted by ∗∗∗). MCF10A cells exposed to the same concentration showed no significant change. (b) Visualization of MDA-MB-468 cells after five-day exposure to Phyllanthus emblica extract at 10x magnification.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4477227&req=5

fig1: Cytotoxic effects of Phyllanthus emblica  (Indian Gooseberry)  extract against triple-negative breast cancer cells. (a) MCF10A cells represent untransformed mammary epithelial cells. All other cell lines represent triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. Growth media for all cell lines were used according to ATCC recommendations. 104 cells were seeded in 24-well plates. 24 hours after plating, Indian Gooseberry extract (Saberry, Sabinsa Corporation) dissolved in PBS was added daily to fresh media at the indicated concentrations or PBS to control cells. Cell viability was measured using trypan blue exclusion with a hemocytometer after a five-day exposure period. Experiments were carried out multiple times in triplicate. Error bars represent SEM. P values for growth inhibition of MDA-MB-435, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-231, and BT20 cells exposed to 100 µg/mL Phyllanthus emblica compared to control cells were all <0.05 (denoted by ∗∗∗). MCF10A cells exposed to the same concentration showed no significant change. (b) Visualization of MDA-MB-468 cells after five-day exposure to Phyllanthus emblica extract at 10x magnification.
Mentions: Phyllanthus emblica extracts have been demonstrated to have potent tumor repressive properties against a number of cancer types both in vitro and in vivo. Preclinical evidence using a diverse panel of cancer cell lines shows aqueous extract from Phyllanthus emblica berries induced apoptosis at concentrations ranging from 50 to 100 micrograms/mL [24]. In this study, normal fibroblasts were also included and showed 4-fold lower sensitivity to these extracts. This is in keeping with our own data comparing aqueous Phyllanthus emblica berry extracts (generous gift of Sabinsa Corporation) against triple-negative breast cancer cells (Figures 1(a) and 1(b)). We see exposure of these cells to doses of the soluble extract ranging from 25 to 100 micrograms/mL results in significant cytotoxicity (Figures 1(a) and 1(b)), but almost no effect is seen against normal breast epithelial cells (MCF10A). Other reports have shown extracts from blueberries and strawberries both limit the proliferation of triple-negative breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo [25, 26]. However, neither of these extracts showed a considerable degree of antiproliferative activity at concentrations lower than 500 micrograms/mL, whereas soluble Phyllanthus emblica berry extract was potent even at 50 micrograms/mL in at least three (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435, and MDA-MB-468) of the cell lines we tested. The sparsity of cells after exposure to the berry extract and appearance of debris indicate cells are undergoing apoptosis as opposed to cytostatic mechanisms of growth arrest. These data indicate Phyllanthus emblica extract or a constituent therein represents a potential treatment for breast cancer with low toxicity against nontransformed cells.

Bottom Line: It remains unclear how polyphenols from Phyllanthus emblica can incorporate both cancer-preventative and antitumor properties.The antioxidant function of Phyllanthus emblica can account for some of the anticancer activity, but clearly other mechanisms are equally important.Herein, we provide a brief overview of the evidence supporting anticancer activity of Indian Gooseberry extracts, suggest possible mechanisms for these actions, and provide future directions that might be taken to translate these findings clinically.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Lady Davis Institute The Jewish General Hospital, 3755 Chemin de la Côte-Sainte-Catherine, Montreal, QC, Canada H3T 1E2 ; The Departments of Oncology and Experimental Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada H3T 1E2.

ABSTRACT
There is a wealth of information emanating from both in vitro and in vivo studies indicating fruit extract of the Phyllanthus emblica tree, commonly referred to as Indian Gooseberries, has potent anticancer properties. The bioactivity in this extract is thought to be principally mediated by polyphenols, especially tannins and flavonoids. It remains unclear how polyphenols from Phyllanthus emblica can incorporate both cancer-preventative and antitumor properties. The antioxidant function of Phyllanthus emblica can account for some of the anticancer activity, but clearly other mechanisms are equally important. Herein, we provide a brief overview of the evidence supporting anticancer activity of Indian Gooseberry extracts, suggest possible mechanisms for these actions, and provide future directions that might be taken to translate these findings clinically.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus