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Age-Related Cognitive Impairment as a Sign of Geriatric Neurocardiovascular Interactions: May Polyphenols Play a Protective Role?

Jagla F, Pechanova O - Oxid Med Cell Longev (2015)

Bottom Line: There are emerging evidences from in vitro and animal studies suggesting that polyphenols may potentially have a protective effect on the development of neurodegenerative diseases and may improve cognitive function as well as positively affecting the blood pressure regulatory mechanisms.This review accentuates the need for precisely defined clinically controlled studies as well as for use of adequate experimental procedures discriminating between the human higher brain functions and the only overall activation of the brain cortex.The physiological neurocardiovascular interactions are implicated in the increased healthy life span as well.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Normal and Pathological Physiology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Sienkiewiczova 1, 813 71 Bratislava, Slovakia.

ABSTRACT
It is known that endothelial dysfunction plays an important role in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases implicated also in cognitive decline. Experimental studies pointed to the fact that the modification of NO levels via NOS activity may affect the blood pressure level as well as several higher nervous functions-for example, learning and memory. There are emerging evidences from in vitro and animal studies suggesting that polyphenols may potentially have a protective effect on the development of neurodegenerative diseases and may improve cognitive function as well as positively affecting the blood pressure regulatory mechanisms. This review accentuates the need for precisely defined clinically controlled studies as well as for use of adequate experimental procedures discriminating between the human higher brain functions and the only overall activation of the brain cortex. The physiological neurocardiovascular interactions are implicated in the increased healthy life span as well.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Changes of eNOS and iNOS activity and their effects upon human cognitive function.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4477224&req=5

fig1: Changes of eNOS and iNOS activity and their effects upon human cognitive function.

Mentions: It is now known that dietary polyphenols are extensively metabolized in vivo and the chemical, biophysical, and biological properties of their metabolites are quite different from those of parent molecule. The systemic effects of polyphenols are associated with nitric oxide signalling. Actually, NO plays a dual role in tissues and cells. It belongs to essential physiological signalling molecule mediating various cell functions but when present in excess it induces cytotoxic and mutagenic effects [29], as for neurons also [30]. While the normal production of NO is associated with normal function of eNOS its overproduction (toxic) is associated with increase in inducible NOS (iNOS). Results of many studies demonstrated clearly that inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) reduces blood flow and may contribute to cognitive dysfunction [31]. Cai et al. [32] stated that the downregulation of iNOS and upregulation of eNOS may protect from cognitive impairment. Figure 1 shows how the changes of eNOS and iNOS activity can affect human cognitive functions. Animal model studies pointed to the fact that the modulation of NO levels via NOS activity, for example, by administration of polyphenols, may affect aging and dementia [33], memory deficits and long-term memory [34], spatial working memory [35], and performance in cognitive tasks relating to learning and memory as well [36].


Age-Related Cognitive Impairment as a Sign of Geriatric Neurocardiovascular Interactions: May Polyphenols Play a Protective Role?

Jagla F, Pechanova O - Oxid Med Cell Longev (2015)

Changes of eNOS and iNOS activity and their effects upon human cognitive function.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4477224&req=5

fig1: Changes of eNOS and iNOS activity and their effects upon human cognitive function.
Mentions: It is now known that dietary polyphenols are extensively metabolized in vivo and the chemical, biophysical, and biological properties of their metabolites are quite different from those of parent molecule. The systemic effects of polyphenols are associated with nitric oxide signalling. Actually, NO plays a dual role in tissues and cells. It belongs to essential physiological signalling molecule mediating various cell functions but when present in excess it induces cytotoxic and mutagenic effects [29], as for neurons also [30]. While the normal production of NO is associated with normal function of eNOS its overproduction (toxic) is associated with increase in inducible NOS (iNOS). Results of many studies demonstrated clearly that inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) reduces blood flow and may contribute to cognitive dysfunction [31]. Cai et al. [32] stated that the downregulation of iNOS and upregulation of eNOS may protect from cognitive impairment. Figure 1 shows how the changes of eNOS and iNOS activity can affect human cognitive functions. Animal model studies pointed to the fact that the modulation of NO levels via NOS activity, for example, by administration of polyphenols, may affect aging and dementia [33], memory deficits and long-term memory [34], spatial working memory [35], and performance in cognitive tasks relating to learning and memory as well [36].

Bottom Line: There are emerging evidences from in vitro and animal studies suggesting that polyphenols may potentially have a protective effect on the development of neurodegenerative diseases and may improve cognitive function as well as positively affecting the blood pressure regulatory mechanisms.This review accentuates the need for precisely defined clinically controlled studies as well as for use of adequate experimental procedures discriminating between the human higher brain functions and the only overall activation of the brain cortex.The physiological neurocardiovascular interactions are implicated in the increased healthy life span as well.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Normal and Pathological Physiology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Sienkiewiczova 1, 813 71 Bratislava, Slovakia.

ABSTRACT
It is known that endothelial dysfunction plays an important role in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases implicated also in cognitive decline. Experimental studies pointed to the fact that the modification of NO levels via NOS activity may affect the blood pressure level as well as several higher nervous functions-for example, learning and memory. There are emerging evidences from in vitro and animal studies suggesting that polyphenols may potentially have a protective effect on the development of neurodegenerative diseases and may improve cognitive function as well as positively affecting the blood pressure regulatory mechanisms. This review accentuates the need for precisely defined clinically controlled studies as well as for use of adequate experimental procedures discriminating between the human higher brain functions and the only overall activation of the brain cortex. The physiological neurocardiovascular interactions are implicated in the increased healthy life span as well.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus