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Psychiatric Disorders and Polyphenols: Can They Be Helpful in Therapy?

Trebatická J, Ďuračková Z - Oxid Med Cell Longev (2015)

Bottom Line: ADHD patients treated with antipsychotic drugs, especially stimulants, report significant adverse effects; therefore, an alternative treatment is searched for.Curcumin, extract from green tea and from Ginkgo biloba, may have benefits on serious side effects associated with administration of neuroleptics to patients suffering from schizophrenia.Polyphenols in the diet have the potential to become medicaments in the field of mental health after a thorough study of their mechanism of action.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University and Child University Hospital, 833 40 Bratislava, Slovakia.

ABSTRACT
The prevalence of psychiatric disorders permanently increases. Polyphenolic compounds can be involved in modulation of mental health including brain plasticity, behaviour, mood, depression, and cognition. In addition to their antioxidant ability other biomodulating properties have been observed. In the pathogenesis of depression disturbance in neurotransmitters, increased inflammatory processes, defects in neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity, mitochondrial dysfunction, and redox imbalance are observed. Ginkgo biloba, green tea, and Quercus robur extracts and curcumin can affect neuronal system in depressive patients. ADHD patients treated with antipsychotic drugs, especially stimulants, report significant adverse effects; therefore, an alternative treatment is searched for. An extract from Ginkgo biloba and from Pinus pinaster bark, Pycnogenol, could become promising complementary supplements in ADHD treatment. Schizophrenia is a devastating mental disorder, with oxidative stress involved in its pathophysiology. The direct interference of polyphenols with schizophrenia pathophysiology has not been reported yet. However, increased oxidative stress caused by haloperidol was inhibited ex vivo by different polyphenols. Curcumin, extract from green tea and from Ginkgo biloba, may have benefits on serious side effects associated with administration of neuroleptics to patients suffering from schizophrenia. Polyphenols in the diet have the potential to become medicaments in the field of mental health after a thorough study of their mechanism of action.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Neurotransmitters in synapse. Molecules of NT are synthesized from their substrates by enzymes. NT are stored in vesicles. Vesicles after action potential fuse with presynaptic membrane and NT are released into synapse cleft. Released NT are linked to postsynaptic receptors and signal is transferred (→) to postsynapse. NT can be reuptaken by autoreceptor and neurotransmission is inhibited (⇢). Reuptaken NT can be enzymatically degraded (MAO). NT: neurotransmitter; MAO: monoaminooxidase.
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fig3: Neurotransmitters in synapse. Molecules of NT are synthesized from their substrates by enzymes. NT are stored in vesicles. Vesicles after action potential fuse with presynaptic membrane and NT are released into synapse cleft. Released NT are linked to postsynaptic receptors and signal is transferred (→) to postsynapse. NT can be reuptaken by autoreceptor and neurotransmission is inhibited (⇢). Reuptaken NT can be enzymatically degraded (MAO). NT: neurotransmitter; MAO: monoaminooxidase.

Mentions: Firstly, the causal relation is assumed between disturbance in monoamine (neurotransmitters) metabolism, especially serotonin, abnormalities in its receptor, and depression [39], but also dopamine, adrenaline, and glutamate are involved [40, 41]. Metabolism of neurotransmitters is influenced by enzymes involved in their degradation, like monoamine oxidase (MAO), and in synthesis of their amino acid precursor tryptophan by enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase [42]. The causal association between neurotransmitters and depression is also based on successful treatment of depression with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) into the presynaptic cells increasing the level of serotonin in the synaptic cleft available to bind to the postsynaptic receptor (Figure 3). The process of neurotransmission is explained in the text to the figure.


Psychiatric Disorders and Polyphenols: Can They Be Helpful in Therapy?

Trebatická J, Ďuračková Z - Oxid Med Cell Longev (2015)

Neurotransmitters in synapse. Molecules of NT are synthesized from their substrates by enzymes. NT are stored in vesicles. Vesicles after action potential fuse with presynaptic membrane and NT are released into synapse cleft. Released NT are linked to postsynaptic receptors and signal is transferred (→) to postsynapse. NT can be reuptaken by autoreceptor and neurotransmission is inhibited (⇢). Reuptaken NT can be enzymatically degraded (MAO). NT: neurotransmitter; MAO: monoaminooxidase.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4477218&req=5

fig3: Neurotransmitters in synapse. Molecules of NT are synthesized from their substrates by enzymes. NT are stored in vesicles. Vesicles after action potential fuse with presynaptic membrane and NT are released into synapse cleft. Released NT are linked to postsynaptic receptors and signal is transferred (→) to postsynapse. NT can be reuptaken by autoreceptor and neurotransmission is inhibited (⇢). Reuptaken NT can be enzymatically degraded (MAO). NT: neurotransmitter; MAO: monoaminooxidase.
Mentions: Firstly, the causal relation is assumed between disturbance in monoamine (neurotransmitters) metabolism, especially serotonin, abnormalities in its receptor, and depression [39], but also dopamine, adrenaline, and glutamate are involved [40, 41]. Metabolism of neurotransmitters is influenced by enzymes involved in their degradation, like monoamine oxidase (MAO), and in synthesis of their amino acid precursor tryptophan by enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase [42]. The causal association between neurotransmitters and depression is also based on successful treatment of depression with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) into the presynaptic cells increasing the level of serotonin in the synaptic cleft available to bind to the postsynaptic receptor (Figure 3). The process of neurotransmission is explained in the text to the figure.

Bottom Line: ADHD patients treated with antipsychotic drugs, especially stimulants, report significant adverse effects; therefore, an alternative treatment is searched for.Curcumin, extract from green tea and from Ginkgo biloba, may have benefits on serious side effects associated with administration of neuroleptics to patients suffering from schizophrenia.Polyphenols in the diet have the potential to become medicaments in the field of mental health after a thorough study of their mechanism of action.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University and Child University Hospital, 833 40 Bratislava, Slovakia.

ABSTRACT
The prevalence of psychiatric disorders permanently increases. Polyphenolic compounds can be involved in modulation of mental health including brain plasticity, behaviour, mood, depression, and cognition. In addition to their antioxidant ability other biomodulating properties have been observed. In the pathogenesis of depression disturbance in neurotransmitters, increased inflammatory processes, defects in neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity, mitochondrial dysfunction, and redox imbalance are observed. Ginkgo biloba, green tea, and Quercus robur extracts and curcumin can affect neuronal system in depressive patients. ADHD patients treated with antipsychotic drugs, especially stimulants, report significant adverse effects; therefore, an alternative treatment is searched for. An extract from Ginkgo biloba and from Pinus pinaster bark, Pycnogenol, could become promising complementary supplements in ADHD treatment. Schizophrenia is a devastating mental disorder, with oxidative stress involved in its pathophysiology. The direct interference of polyphenols with schizophrenia pathophysiology has not been reported yet. However, increased oxidative stress caused by haloperidol was inhibited ex vivo by different polyphenols. Curcumin, extract from green tea and from Ginkgo biloba, may have benefits on serious side effects associated with administration of neuroleptics to patients suffering from schizophrenia. Polyphenols in the diet have the potential to become medicaments in the field of mental health after a thorough study of their mechanism of action.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus