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Psychiatric Disorders and Polyphenols: Can They Be Helpful in Therapy?

Trebatická J, Ďuračková Z - Oxid Med Cell Longev (2015)

Bottom Line: ADHD patients treated with antipsychotic drugs, especially stimulants, report significant adverse effects; therefore, an alternative treatment is searched for.Curcumin, extract from green tea and from Ginkgo biloba, may have benefits on serious side effects associated with administration of neuroleptics to patients suffering from schizophrenia.Polyphenols in the diet have the potential to become medicaments in the field of mental health after a thorough study of their mechanism of action.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University and Child University Hospital, 833 40 Bratislava, Slovakia.

ABSTRACT
The prevalence of psychiatric disorders permanently increases. Polyphenolic compounds can be involved in modulation of mental health including brain plasticity, behaviour, mood, depression, and cognition. In addition to their antioxidant ability other biomodulating properties have been observed. In the pathogenesis of depression disturbance in neurotransmitters, increased inflammatory processes, defects in neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity, mitochondrial dysfunction, and redox imbalance are observed. Ginkgo biloba, green tea, and Quercus robur extracts and curcumin can affect neuronal system in depressive patients. ADHD patients treated with antipsychotic drugs, especially stimulants, report significant adverse effects; therefore, an alternative treatment is searched for. An extract from Ginkgo biloba and from Pinus pinaster bark, Pycnogenol, could become promising complementary supplements in ADHD treatment. Schizophrenia is a devastating mental disorder, with oxidative stress involved in its pathophysiology. The direct interference of polyphenols with schizophrenia pathophysiology has not been reported yet. However, increased oxidative stress caused by haloperidol was inhibited ex vivo by different polyphenols. Curcumin, extract from green tea and from Ginkgo biloba, may have benefits on serious side effects associated with administration of neuroleptics to patients suffering from schizophrenia. Polyphenols in the diet have the potential to become medicaments in the field of mental health after a thorough study of their mechanism of action.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Basic flavonoid structures.
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fig1: Basic flavonoid structures.

Mentions: Polyphenols (known as polyhydroxyphenols) are predominantly secondary metabolites of plants. They belong to structural class of organic compounds characterized by the presence of large multiples of phenol structural units. These phenol structures underlie the unique physical, chemical, and biological (metabolic, toxic, therapeutic, etc.) properties of particular members of the class. The name derives from the ancient Greek word πολύς (polus, meaning “many, much") and the word phenol which refers to a chemical structure formed by attaching a hydroxyl (–OH) group to an aromatic phenyl ring. They are divided into three groups according to their hydrolytic cleavage products: (i) tannins: derivatives of catechin or gallic acid with mostly antioxidant properties [8], (ii) phenylpropane derivatives (lignans, ellagitannins, cinnamic acid derivatives, and others); for example, higher dietary intake of lignans is associated with better cognitive functions in postmenopausal women [9] or extract of ellagitannins from oak wood reduced many of key symptoms of chronic fatigue [10], and (iii) flavonoids: phenolic compounds spread in the plant kingdom. They include more than 4000 different derivatives and their list constantly increases. Formation of so many derivatives is possible due to the substitution of hydrogen atoms by hydroxyl, methoxyl, and other groups at different sites of the basic structures. The basic flavonoid structures include the following: flavan-3-ols (epicatechin and gallocatechin), flavanones (naringenin and hesperidin), flavones (apigenin and luteolin), flavone-3-ol (quercetin and myricetin), anthocyanidins (cyanidin and pelargonidin), and isoflavones (genistein and daidzein) [11] (Figure 1).


Psychiatric Disorders and Polyphenols: Can They Be Helpful in Therapy?

Trebatická J, Ďuračková Z - Oxid Med Cell Longev (2015)

Basic flavonoid structures.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4477218&req=5

fig1: Basic flavonoid structures.
Mentions: Polyphenols (known as polyhydroxyphenols) are predominantly secondary metabolites of plants. They belong to structural class of organic compounds characterized by the presence of large multiples of phenol structural units. These phenol structures underlie the unique physical, chemical, and biological (metabolic, toxic, therapeutic, etc.) properties of particular members of the class. The name derives from the ancient Greek word πολύς (polus, meaning “many, much") and the word phenol which refers to a chemical structure formed by attaching a hydroxyl (–OH) group to an aromatic phenyl ring. They are divided into three groups according to their hydrolytic cleavage products: (i) tannins: derivatives of catechin or gallic acid with mostly antioxidant properties [8], (ii) phenylpropane derivatives (lignans, ellagitannins, cinnamic acid derivatives, and others); for example, higher dietary intake of lignans is associated with better cognitive functions in postmenopausal women [9] or extract of ellagitannins from oak wood reduced many of key symptoms of chronic fatigue [10], and (iii) flavonoids: phenolic compounds spread in the plant kingdom. They include more than 4000 different derivatives and their list constantly increases. Formation of so many derivatives is possible due to the substitution of hydrogen atoms by hydroxyl, methoxyl, and other groups at different sites of the basic structures. The basic flavonoid structures include the following: flavan-3-ols (epicatechin and gallocatechin), flavanones (naringenin and hesperidin), flavones (apigenin and luteolin), flavone-3-ol (quercetin and myricetin), anthocyanidins (cyanidin and pelargonidin), and isoflavones (genistein and daidzein) [11] (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: ADHD patients treated with antipsychotic drugs, especially stimulants, report significant adverse effects; therefore, an alternative treatment is searched for.Curcumin, extract from green tea and from Ginkgo biloba, may have benefits on serious side effects associated with administration of neuroleptics to patients suffering from schizophrenia.Polyphenols in the diet have the potential to become medicaments in the field of mental health after a thorough study of their mechanism of action.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University and Child University Hospital, 833 40 Bratislava, Slovakia.

ABSTRACT
The prevalence of psychiatric disorders permanently increases. Polyphenolic compounds can be involved in modulation of mental health including brain plasticity, behaviour, mood, depression, and cognition. In addition to their antioxidant ability other biomodulating properties have been observed. In the pathogenesis of depression disturbance in neurotransmitters, increased inflammatory processes, defects in neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity, mitochondrial dysfunction, and redox imbalance are observed. Ginkgo biloba, green tea, and Quercus robur extracts and curcumin can affect neuronal system in depressive patients. ADHD patients treated with antipsychotic drugs, especially stimulants, report significant adverse effects; therefore, an alternative treatment is searched for. An extract from Ginkgo biloba and from Pinus pinaster bark, Pycnogenol, could become promising complementary supplements in ADHD treatment. Schizophrenia is a devastating mental disorder, with oxidative stress involved in its pathophysiology. The direct interference of polyphenols with schizophrenia pathophysiology has not been reported yet. However, increased oxidative stress caused by haloperidol was inhibited ex vivo by different polyphenols. Curcumin, extract from green tea and from Ginkgo biloba, may have benefits on serious side effects associated with administration of neuroleptics to patients suffering from schizophrenia. Polyphenols in the diet have the potential to become medicaments in the field of mental health after a thorough study of their mechanism of action.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus