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Wild chimpanzees are infected by Trypanosoma brucei.

Jirků M, Votýpka J, Petrželková KJ, Jirků-Pomajbíková K, Kriegová E, Vodička R, Lankester F, Leendertz SA, Wittig RM, Boesch C, Modrý D, Ayala FJ, Leendertz FH, Lukeš J - Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl (2015)

Bottom Line: Although wild chimpanzees and other African great apes live in regions endemic for African sleeping sickness, very little is known about their trypanosome infections, mainly due to major difficulties in obtaining their blood samples.The optimized technique of trypanosome detection in feces will improve our knowledge about the epidemiology of trypanosomes in primates and possibly also other endangered mammals, from which blood and tissue samples cannot be obtained.Finally, we demonstrated that the mandrill serum was able to efficiently lyse T. b. brucei and T. b. rhodesiense, and to some extent T. b. gambiense, while the chimpanzee serum failed to lyse any of these subspecies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre of the Czech Academy of Sciences, České Budějovice (Budweiss), Czech Republic ; Faculty of Sciences, University of South Bohemia, České Budějovice (Budweiss), Czech Republic.

ABSTRACT
Although wild chimpanzees and other African great apes live in regions endemic for African sleeping sickness, very little is known about their trypanosome infections, mainly due to major difficulties in obtaining their blood samples. In present work, we established a diagnostic ITS1-based PCR assay that allows detection of the DNA of all four Trypanosoma brucei subspecies (Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, and Trypanosoma brucei evansi) in feces of experimentally infected mice. Next, using this assay we revealed the presence of trypanosomes in the fecal samples of wild chimpanzees and this finding was further supported by results obtained using a set of primate tissue samples. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS1 region showed that the majority of obtained sequences fell into the robust T. brucei group, providing strong evidence that these infections were caused by T. b. rhodesiense and/or T. b. gambiense. The optimized technique of trypanosome detection in feces will improve our knowledge about the epidemiology of trypanosomes in primates and possibly also other endangered mammals, from which blood and tissue samples cannot be obtained. Finally, we demonstrated that the mandrill serum was able to efficiently lyse T. b. brucei and T. b. rhodesiense, and to some extent T. b. gambiense, while the chimpanzee serum failed to lyse any of these subspecies.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

ITS1-based dendogram of trypanosomes from primate tissue and fecal samples. Sequences generated in this study are marked as follows: T – tissue samples of apes (TA) and monkeys (TM); F – fecal samples of apes (FA); sequences retrieved from GenBank are labeled with Latin names (Trypanosoma sp. ex Wildebeest JN673403, for T. theileriJX178185, HQ664848, and HQ664849).
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fig2: ITS1-based dendogram of trypanosomes from primate tissue and fecal samples. Sequences generated in this study are marked as follows: T – tissue samples of apes (TA) and monkeys (TM); F – fecal samples of apes (FA); sequences retrieved from GenBank are labeled with Latin names (Trypanosoma sp. ex Wildebeest JN673403, for T. theileriJX178185, HQ664848, and HQ664849).

Mentions: Using the nested PCR protocol, the ITS1 region of T. b. brucei, T. b. gambiense, T. b. rhodesiense and T. b. evansi was successfully amplified from DNA isolated from fecal samples of infected mice, with relevant controls being negative (Fig. 1). Single abundant amplicons were of expected size (∼450 bp) and sequence (Fig. 2). This experiment proved that under our experimental conditions, the flagellate DNA can be reliably detected in feces of laboratory mice using a 35 cycle PCR protocol.


Wild chimpanzees are infected by Trypanosoma brucei.

Jirků M, Votýpka J, Petrželková KJ, Jirků-Pomajbíková K, Kriegová E, Vodička R, Lankester F, Leendertz SA, Wittig RM, Boesch C, Modrý D, Ayala FJ, Leendertz FH, Lukeš J - Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl (2015)

ITS1-based dendogram of trypanosomes from primate tissue and fecal samples. Sequences generated in this study are marked as follows: T – tissue samples of apes (TA) and monkeys (TM); F – fecal samples of apes (FA); sequences retrieved from GenBank are labeled with Latin names (Trypanosoma sp. ex Wildebeest JN673403, for T. theileriJX178185, HQ664848, and HQ664849).
© Copyright Policy - CC BY-NC-ND
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4477118&req=5

fig2: ITS1-based dendogram of trypanosomes from primate tissue and fecal samples. Sequences generated in this study are marked as follows: T – tissue samples of apes (TA) and monkeys (TM); F – fecal samples of apes (FA); sequences retrieved from GenBank are labeled with Latin names (Trypanosoma sp. ex Wildebeest JN673403, for T. theileriJX178185, HQ664848, and HQ664849).
Mentions: Using the nested PCR protocol, the ITS1 region of T. b. brucei, T. b. gambiense, T. b. rhodesiense and T. b. evansi was successfully amplified from DNA isolated from fecal samples of infected mice, with relevant controls being negative (Fig. 1). Single abundant amplicons were of expected size (∼450 bp) and sequence (Fig. 2). This experiment proved that under our experimental conditions, the flagellate DNA can be reliably detected in feces of laboratory mice using a 35 cycle PCR protocol.

Bottom Line: Although wild chimpanzees and other African great apes live in regions endemic for African sleeping sickness, very little is known about their trypanosome infections, mainly due to major difficulties in obtaining their blood samples.The optimized technique of trypanosome detection in feces will improve our knowledge about the epidemiology of trypanosomes in primates and possibly also other endangered mammals, from which blood and tissue samples cannot be obtained.Finally, we demonstrated that the mandrill serum was able to efficiently lyse T. b. brucei and T. b. rhodesiense, and to some extent T. b. gambiense, while the chimpanzee serum failed to lyse any of these subspecies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre of the Czech Academy of Sciences, České Budějovice (Budweiss), Czech Republic ; Faculty of Sciences, University of South Bohemia, České Budějovice (Budweiss), Czech Republic.

ABSTRACT
Although wild chimpanzees and other African great apes live in regions endemic for African sleeping sickness, very little is known about their trypanosome infections, mainly due to major difficulties in obtaining their blood samples. In present work, we established a diagnostic ITS1-based PCR assay that allows detection of the DNA of all four Trypanosoma brucei subspecies (Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, and Trypanosoma brucei evansi) in feces of experimentally infected mice. Next, using this assay we revealed the presence of trypanosomes in the fecal samples of wild chimpanzees and this finding was further supported by results obtained using a set of primate tissue samples. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS1 region showed that the majority of obtained sequences fell into the robust T. brucei group, providing strong evidence that these infections were caused by T. b. rhodesiense and/or T. b. gambiense. The optimized technique of trypanosome detection in feces will improve our knowledge about the epidemiology of trypanosomes in primates and possibly also other endangered mammals, from which blood and tissue samples cannot be obtained. Finally, we demonstrated that the mandrill serum was able to efficiently lyse T. b. brucei and T. b. rhodesiense, and to some extent T. b. gambiense, while the chimpanzee serum failed to lyse any of these subspecies.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus