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Disrupted insula-based neural circuit organization and conflict interference in trauma-exposed youth.

Marusak HA, Etkin A, Thomason ME - Neuroimage Clin (2015)

Bottom Line: We find that trauma-exposed youth are more susceptible to conflict interference and this correlates with higher fronto-insular responses during conflict.Resting-state functional connectivity data collected in the same participants reveal increased connectivity of the insula to SN seed regions that is associated with diminished reward sensitivity, a critical risk/resilience trait following stress.In addition to altered intrinsic connectivity of the SN, we observed altered connectivity between the SN and default mode network (DMN) in trauma-exposed youth.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA ; Merrill Palmer Skillman Institute for Child and Family Development, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA.

ABSTRACT
Childhood trauma exposure is a potent risk factor for psychopathology. Emerging research suggests that aberrant saliency processing underlies the link between early trauma exposure and later cognitive and socioemotional deficits that are hallmark of several psychiatric disorders. Here, we examine brain and behavioral responses during a face categorization conflict task, and relate these to intrinsic connectivity of the salience network (SN). The results demonstrate a unique pattern of SN dysfunction in youth exposed to trauma (n = 14) relative to comparison youth (n = 19) matched on age, sex, IQ, and sociodemographic risk. We find that trauma-exposed youth are more susceptible to conflict interference and this correlates with higher fronto-insular responses during conflict. Resting-state functional connectivity data collected in the same participants reveal increased connectivity of the insula to SN seed regions that is associated with diminished reward sensitivity, a critical risk/resilience trait following stress. In addition to altered intrinsic connectivity of the SN, we observed altered connectivity between the SN and default mode network (DMN) in trauma-exposed youth. These data uncover network-level disruptions in brain organization following one of the strongest predictors of illness, early life trauma, and demonstrate the relevance of observed neural effects for behavior and specific symptom dimensions. SN dysfunction may serve as a diathesis that contributes to illness and negative outcomes following childhood trauma.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Salience network (SN) connectivity within the insula mediates the relationship between trauma exposure and reward sensitivity (RS). Unstandardized regression coefficients and bias-corrected 95% confidence interval (CI) for the indirect effect from a bootstrap-mediation analysis. Specifically, trauma exposure led to diminished RS through increased SN connectivity within the insula. *p < 0.05.
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f0020: Salience network (SN) connectivity within the insula mediates the relationship between trauma exposure and reward sensitivity (RS). Unstandardized regression coefficients and bias-corrected 95% confidence interval (CI) for the indirect effect from a bootstrap-mediation analysis. Specifically, trauma exposure led to diminished RS through increased SN connectivity within the insula. *p < 0.05.

Mentions: Driven by prior work showing relationships between depressive symptoms and altered SN connectivity in the insula (Manoliu et al., 2013), and by our recent work showing associations between trait RS and altered function of emotional conflict neural systems in trauma-exposed youth (Marusak et al., 2015), we tested associations between SN-insula connectivity and RS. The strength of SN connectivity was extracted from the peak of the insula region that showed higher connectivity in trauma-exposed youth. We then tested for associations between connectivity in this region and RS across the sample. We observed that higher SN to left insula connectivity was associated with diminished RS, r(32) = −0.373, p = 0.036. Mediation analyses showed that the association between trauma exposure and RS was mediated by SN-insula connectivity (β = −0.4, standard error (SE) = 0.21, lower limit confidence interval = −0.89, upper limit confidence interval = −0.007; see Fig. 4). Neither anxiety nor depressive symptoms were related to SN connectivity in the insula (p's > 0.27).


Disrupted insula-based neural circuit organization and conflict interference in trauma-exposed youth.

Marusak HA, Etkin A, Thomason ME - Neuroimage Clin (2015)

Salience network (SN) connectivity within the insula mediates the relationship between trauma exposure and reward sensitivity (RS). Unstandardized regression coefficients and bias-corrected 95% confidence interval (CI) for the indirect effect from a bootstrap-mediation analysis. Specifically, trauma exposure led to diminished RS through increased SN connectivity within the insula. *p < 0.05.
© Copyright Policy - CC BY-NC-ND
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4477108&req=5

f0020: Salience network (SN) connectivity within the insula mediates the relationship between trauma exposure and reward sensitivity (RS). Unstandardized regression coefficients and bias-corrected 95% confidence interval (CI) for the indirect effect from a bootstrap-mediation analysis. Specifically, trauma exposure led to diminished RS through increased SN connectivity within the insula. *p < 0.05.
Mentions: Driven by prior work showing relationships between depressive symptoms and altered SN connectivity in the insula (Manoliu et al., 2013), and by our recent work showing associations between trait RS and altered function of emotional conflict neural systems in trauma-exposed youth (Marusak et al., 2015), we tested associations between SN-insula connectivity and RS. The strength of SN connectivity was extracted from the peak of the insula region that showed higher connectivity in trauma-exposed youth. We then tested for associations between connectivity in this region and RS across the sample. We observed that higher SN to left insula connectivity was associated with diminished RS, r(32) = −0.373, p = 0.036. Mediation analyses showed that the association between trauma exposure and RS was mediated by SN-insula connectivity (β = −0.4, standard error (SE) = 0.21, lower limit confidence interval = −0.89, upper limit confidence interval = −0.007; see Fig. 4). Neither anxiety nor depressive symptoms were related to SN connectivity in the insula (p's > 0.27).

Bottom Line: We find that trauma-exposed youth are more susceptible to conflict interference and this correlates with higher fronto-insular responses during conflict.Resting-state functional connectivity data collected in the same participants reveal increased connectivity of the insula to SN seed regions that is associated with diminished reward sensitivity, a critical risk/resilience trait following stress.In addition to altered intrinsic connectivity of the SN, we observed altered connectivity between the SN and default mode network (DMN) in trauma-exposed youth.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA ; Merrill Palmer Skillman Institute for Child and Family Development, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA.

ABSTRACT
Childhood trauma exposure is a potent risk factor for psychopathology. Emerging research suggests that aberrant saliency processing underlies the link between early trauma exposure and later cognitive and socioemotional deficits that are hallmark of several psychiatric disorders. Here, we examine brain and behavioral responses during a face categorization conflict task, and relate these to intrinsic connectivity of the salience network (SN). The results demonstrate a unique pattern of SN dysfunction in youth exposed to trauma (n = 14) relative to comparison youth (n = 19) matched on age, sex, IQ, and sociodemographic risk. We find that trauma-exposed youth are more susceptible to conflict interference and this correlates with higher fronto-insular responses during conflict. Resting-state functional connectivity data collected in the same participants reveal increased connectivity of the insula to SN seed regions that is associated with diminished reward sensitivity, a critical risk/resilience trait following stress. In addition to altered intrinsic connectivity of the SN, we observed altered connectivity between the SN and default mode network (DMN) in trauma-exposed youth. These data uncover network-level disruptions in brain organization following one of the strongest predictors of illness, early life trauma, and demonstrate the relevance of observed neural effects for behavior and specific symptom dimensions. SN dysfunction may serve as a diathesis that contributes to illness and negative outcomes following childhood trauma.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus