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Disrupted insula-based neural circuit organization and conflict interference in trauma-exposed youth.

Marusak HA, Etkin A, Thomason ME - Neuroimage Clin (2015)

Bottom Line: We find that trauma-exposed youth are more susceptible to conflict interference and this correlates with higher fronto-insular responses during conflict.Resting-state functional connectivity data collected in the same participants reveal increased connectivity of the insula to SN seed regions that is associated with diminished reward sensitivity, a critical risk/resilience trait following stress.In addition to altered intrinsic connectivity of the SN, we observed altered connectivity between the SN and default mode network (DMN) in trauma-exposed youth.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA ; Merrill Palmer Skillman Institute for Child and Family Development, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA.

ABSTRACT
Childhood trauma exposure is a potent risk factor for psychopathology. Emerging research suggests that aberrant saliency processing underlies the link between early trauma exposure and later cognitive and socioemotional deficits that are hallmark of several psychiatric disorders. Here, we examine brain and behavioral responses during a face categorization conflict task, and relate these to intrinsic connectivity of the salience network (SN). The results demonstrate a unique pattern of SN dysfunction in youth exposed to trauma (n = 14) relative to comparison youth (n = 19) matched on age, sex, IQ, and sociodemographic risk. We find that trauma-exposed youth are more susceptible to conflict interference and this correlates with higher fronto-insular responses during conflict. Resting-state functional connectivity data collected in the same participants reveal increased connectivity of the insula to SN seed regions that is associated with diminished reward sensitivity, a critical risk/resilience trait following stress. In addition to altered intrinsic connectivity of the SN, we observed altered connectivity between the SN and default mode network (DMN) in trauma-exposed youth. These data uncover network-level disruptions in brain organization following one of the strongest predictors of illness, early life trauma, and demonstrate the relevance of observed neural effects for behavior and specific symptom dimensions. SN dysfunction may serve as a diathesis that contributes to illness and negative outcomes following childhood trauma.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Group differences in salience network (SN) connectivity. Trauma-exposed youth show increased amygdala (AMY), A, decreased dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), B, and increased middle insula (INS), C, to SN signal covariance. Increased SN connectivity within the left insula (x = −28, y = 8, z = −16) was associated with greater right fronto-insular (x = 32, y = 34, z = −10) response to conflict, D. Results are significant at pFWE < 0.05, small-volume corrected. X, Y, Z coordinates are given in MNI convention. Error bars represent standard error.
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f0015: Group differences in salience network (SN) connectivity. Trauma-exposed youth show increased amygdala (AMY), A, decreased dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), B, and increased middle insula (INS), C, to SN signal covariance. Increased SN connectivity within the left insula (x = −28, y = 8, z = −16) was associated with greater right fronto-insular (x = 32, y = 34, z = −10) response to conflict, D. Results are significant at pFWE < 0.05, small-volume corrected. X, Y, Z coordinates are given in MNI convention. Error bars represent standard error.

Mentions: Relative to comparison participants, trauma-exposed youth demonstrated increased SN connectivity within the left amygdala (x = −28, y = −6, z = −18, Z = 3.13, pFWE = 0.046; Fig. 3A) and left middle insula (x = −28, y = 8, z = −16, Z = 3.98, pFWE = 0.011; Fig. 3C), and reduced SN connectivity in the right dACC (x = 4, y = 36, z = 34, Z = 3.14, pFWE = 0.044; Fig. 3B). Increased SN connectivity in the left middle insula was associated with higher rFIC response to conflict (I − C; Fig. 3D), r(33) = 0.516, p = 0.002, and greater performance decrements to incongruent trials, although the latter effect was a non-significant trend, r(33) = −0.335, p = 0.057. SN connectivity across the sample is presented in Fig. S3.


Disrupted insula-based neural circuit organization and conflict interference in trauma-exposed youth.

Marusak HA, Etkin A, Thomason ME - Neuroimage Clin (2015)

Group differences in salience network (SN) connectivity. Trauma-exposed youth show increased amygdala (AMY), A, decreased dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), B, and increased middle insula (INS), C, to SN signal covariance. Increased SN connectivity within the left insula (x = −28, y = 8, z = −16) was associated with greater right fronto-insular (x = 32, y = 34, z = −10) response to conflict, D. Results are significant at pFWE < 0.05, small-volume corrected. X, Y, Z coordinates are given in MNI convention. Error bars represent standard error.
© Copyright Policy - CC BY-NC-ND
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4477108&req=5

f0015: Group differences in salience network (SN) connectivity. Trauma-exposed youth show increased amygdala (AMY), A, decreased dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), B, and increased middle insula (INS), C, to SN signal covariance. Increased SN connectivity within the left insula (x = −28, y = 8, z = −16) was associated with greater right fronto-insular (x = 32, y = 34, z = −10) response to conflict, D. Results are significant at pFWE < 0.05, small-volume corrected. X, Y, Z coordinates are given in MNI convention. Error bars represent standard error.
Mentions: Relative to comparison participants, trauma-exposed youth demonstrated increased SN connectivity within the left amygdala (x = −28, y = −6, z = −18, Z = 3.13, pFWE = 0.046; Fig. 3A) and left middle insula (x = −28, y = 8, z = −16, Z = 3.98, pFWE = 0.011; Fig. 3C), and reduced SN connectivity in the right dACC (x = 4, y = 36, z = 34, Z = 3.14, pFWE = 0.044; Fig. 3B). Increased SN connectivity in the left middle insula was associated with higher rFIC response to conflict (I − C; Fig. 3D), r(33) = 0.516, p = 0.002, and greater performance decrements to incongruent trials, although the latter effect was a non-significant trend, r(33) = −0.335, p = 0.057. SN connectivity across the sample is presented in Fig. S3.

Bottom Line: We find that trauma-exposed youth are more susceptible to conflict interference and this correlates with higher fronto-insular responses during conflict.Resting-state functional connectivity data collected in the same participants reveal increased connectivity of the insula to SN seed regions that is associated with diminished reward sensitivity, a critical risk/resilience trait following stress.In addition to altered intrinsic connectivity of the SN, we observed altered connectivity between the SN and default mode network (DMN) in trauma-exposed youth.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA ; Merrill Palmer Skillman Institute for Child and Family Development, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA.

ABSTRACT
Childhood trauma exposure is a potent risk factor for psychopathology. Emerging research suggests that aberrant saliency processing underlies the link between early trauma exposure and later cognitive and socioemotional deficits that are hallmark of several psychiatric disorders. Here, we examine brain and behavioral responses during a face categorization conflict task, and relate these to intrinsic connectivity of the salience network (SN). The results demonstrate a unique pattern of SN dysfunction in youth exposed to trauma (n = 14) relative to comparison youth (n = 19) matched on age, sex, IQ, and sociodemographic risk. We find that trauma-exposed youth are more susceptible to conflict interference and this correlates with higher fronto-insular responses during conflict. Resting-state functional connectivity data collected in the same participants reveal increased connectivity of the insula to SN seed regions that is associated with diminished reward sensitivity, a critical risk/resilience trait following stress. In addition to altered intrinsic connectivity of the SN, we observed altered connectivity between the SN and default mode network (DMN) in trauma-exposed youth. These data uncover network-level disruptions in brain organization following one of the strongest predictors of illness, early life trauma, and demonstrate the relevance of observed neural effects for behavior and specific symptom dimensions. SN dysfunction may serve as a diathesis that contributes to illness and negative outcomes following childhood trauma.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus