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Disrupted insula-based neural circuit organization and conflict interference in trauma-exposed youth.

Marusak HA, Etkin A, Thomason ME - Neuroimage Clin (2015)

Bottom Line: We find that trauma-exposed youth are more susceptible to conflict interference and this correlates with higher fronto-insular responses during conflict.Resting-state functional connectivity data collected in the same participants reveal increased connectivity of the insula to SN seed regions that is associated with diminished reward sensitivity, a critical risk/resilience trait following stress.In addition to altered intrinsic connectivity of the SN, we observed altered connectivity between the SN and default mode network (DMN) in trauma-exposed youth.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA ; Merrill Palmer Skillman Institute for Child and Family Development, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA.

ABSTRACT
Childhood trauma exposure is a potent risk factor for psychopathology. Emerging research suggests that aberrant saliency processing underlies the link between early trauma exposure and later cognitive and socioemotional deficits that are hallmark of several psychiatric disorders. Here, we examine brain and behavioral responses during a face categorization conflict task, and relate these to intrinsic connectivity of the salience network (SN). The results demonstrate a unique pattern of SN dysfunction in youth exposed to trauma (n = 14) relative to comparison youth (n = 19) matched on age, sex, IQ, and sociodemographic risk. We find that trauma-exposed youth are more susceptible to conflict interference and this correlates with higher fronto-insular responses during conflict. Resting-state functional connectivity data collected in the same participants reveal increased connectivity of the insula to SN seed regions that is associated with diminished reward sensitivity, a critical risk/resilience trait following stress. In addition to altered intrinsic connectivity of the SN, we observed altered connectivity between the SN and default mode network (DMN) in trauma-exposed youth. These data uncover network-level disruptions in brain organization following one of the strongest predictors of illness, early life trauma, and demonstrate the relevance of observed neural effects for behavior and specific symptom dimensions. SN dysfunction may serve as a diathesis that contributes to illness and negative outcomes following childhood trauma.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Trauma-exposed youth show greater (A) right fronto-insular cortex (rFIC) and (B) left mid-posterior insula response to conflict, that correlates with greater performance decrements. Fronto-insular response to conflict is exaggerated in trauma-exposed youth, especially those that demonstrate large interference values (incongruent − congruent trials [I − C]). Clusters are significant at pFWE < 0.04, small-volume corrected. X, Y, Z coordinates are given in MNI convention. Error bars represent standard error.
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f0010: Trauma-exposed youth show greater (A) right fronto-insular cortex (rFIC) and (B) left mid-posterior insula response to conflict, that correlates with greater performance decrements. Fronto-insular response to conflict is exaggerated in trauma-exposed youth, especially those that demonstrate large interference values (incongruent − congruent trials [I − C]). Clusters are significant at pFWE < 0.04, small-volume corrected. X, Y, Z coordinates are given in MNI convention. Error bars represent standard error.

Mentions: We observed greater rFIC response to conflict (I − C) in trauma-exposed relative to comparison youth, x = 32, y = 34, z = −10, Z = 2.98, pFWE = 0.031, Fig. 2A. Across the sample, higher rFIC reactivity was associated with greater performance decrements to conflict (I − C), r(33) = −0.375, p = 0.032. A similar pattern was observed in left mid-posterior insula; trauma-exposed youth showed higher response to conflict (x = −34, y = −10, z = 10, Z = 3.89, pFWE = 0.002) which was associated with greater performance decrements, r(33) = −0.433, p = 0.012, Fig. 2B. Amygdala and dACC SN regions did not show group differences in responses to conflict, and neural activity did not differ between groups during conflict regulation (iI − cI). Exploratory whole-brain effects of I − C are provided in Table S2. Briefly, trauma-exposed youth showed higher response to conflict (I − C) in the FIC, putamen, inferior parietal lobe, and sensorimotor areas; comparison youth showed higher response to conflict in the inferior parietal lobe.


Disrupted insula-based neural circuit organization and conflict interference in trauma-exposed youth.

Marusak HA, Etkin A, Thomason ME - Neuroimage Clin (2015)

Trauma-exposed youth show greater (A) right fronto-insular cortex (rFIC) and (B) left mid-posterior insula response to conflict, that correlates with greater performance decrements. Fronto-insular response to conflict is exaggerated in trauma-exposed youth, especially those that demonstrate large interference values (incongruent − congruent trials [I − C]). Clusters are significant at pFWE < 0.04, small-volume corrected. X, Y, Z coordinates are given in MNI convention. Error bars represent standard error.
© Copyright Policy - CC BY-NC-ND
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4477108&req=5

f0010: Trauma-exposed youth show greater (A) right fronto-insular cortex (rFIC) and (B) left mid-posterior insula response to conflict, that correlates with greater performance decrements. Fronto-insular response to conflict is exaggerated in trauma-exposed youth, especially those that demonstrate large interference values (incongruent − congruent trials [I − C]). Clusters are significant at pFWE < 0.04, small-volume corrected. X, Y, Z coordinates are given in MNI convention. Error bars represent standard error.
Mentions: We observed greater rFIC response to conflict (I − C) in trauma-exposed relative to comparison youth, x = 32, y = 34, z = −10, Z = 2.98, pFWE = 0.031, Fig. 2A. Across the sample, higher rFIC reactivity was associated with greater performance decrements to conflict (I − C), r(33) = −0.375, p = 0.032. A similar pattern was observed in left mid-posterior insula; trauma-exposed youth showed higher response to conflict (x = −34, y = −10, z = 10, Z = 3.89, pFWE = 0.002) which was associated with greater performance decrements, r(33) = −0.433, p = 0.012, Fig. 2B. Amygdala and dACC SN regions did not show group differences in responses to conflict, and neural activity did not differ between groups during conflict regulation (iI − cI). Exploratory whole-brain effects of I − C are provided in Table S2. Briefly, trauma-exposed youth showed higher response to conflict (I − C) in the FIC, putamen, inferior parietal lobe, and sensorimotor areas; comparison youth showed higher response to conflict in the inferior parietal lobe.

Bottom Line: We find that trauma-exposed youth are more susceptible to conflict interference and this correlates with higher fronto-insular responses during conflict.Resting-state functional connectivity data collected in the same participants reveal increased connectivity of the insula to SN seed regions that is associated with diminished reward sensitivity, a critical risk/resilience trait following stress.In addition to altered intrinsic connectivity of the SN, we observed altered connectivity between the SN and default mode network (DMN) in trauma-exposed youth.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA ; Merrill Palmer Skillman Institute for Child and Family Development, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA.

ABSTRACT
Childhood trauma exposure is a potent risk factor for psychopathology. Emerging research suggests that aberrant saliency processing underlies the link between early trauma exposure and later cognitive and socioemotional deficits that are hallmark of several psychiatric disorders. Here, we examine brain and behavioral responses during a face categorization conflict task, and relate these to intrinsic connectivity of the salience network (SN). The results demonstrate a unique pattern of SN dysfunction in youth exposed to trauma (n = 14) relative to comparison youth (n = 19) matched on age, sex, IQ, and sociodemographic risk. We find that trauma-exposed youth are more susceptible to conflict interference and this correlates with higher fronto-insular responses during conflict. Resting-state functional connectivity data collected in the same participants reveal increased connectivity of the insula to SN seed regions that is associated with diminished reward sensitivity, a critical risk/resilience trait following stress. In addition to altered intrinsic connectivity of the SN, we observed altered connectivity between the SN and default mode network (DMN) in trauma-exposed youth. These data uncover network-level disruptions in brain organization following one of the strongest predictors of illness, early life trauma, and demonstrate the relevance of observed neural effects for behavior and specific symptom dimensions. SN dysfunction may serve as a diathesis that contributes to illness and negative outcomes following childhood trauma.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus