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Disrupted insula-based neural circuit organization and conflict interference in trauma-exposed youth.

Marusak HA, Etkin A, Thomason ME - Neuroimage Clin (2015)

Bottom Line: We find that trauma-exposed youth are more susceptible to conflict interference and this correlates with higher fronto-insular responses during conflict.Resting-state functional connectivity data collected in the same participants reveal increased connectivity of the insula to SN seed regions that is associated with diminished reward sensitivity, a critical risk/resilience trait following stress.In addition to altered intrinsic connectivity of the SN, we observed altered connectivity between the SN and default mode network (DMN) in trauma-exposed youth.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA ; Merrill Palmer Skillman Institute for Child and Family Development, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA.

ABSTRACT
Childhood trauma exposure is a potent risk factor for psychopathology. Emerging research suggests that aberrant saliency processing underlies the link between early trauma exposure and later cognitive and socioemotional deficits that are hallmark of several psychiatric disorders. Here, we examine brain and behavioral responses during a face categorization conflict task, and relate these to intrinsic connectivity of the salience network (SN). The results demonstrate a unique pattern of SN dysfunction in youth exposed to trauma (n = 14) relative to comparison youth (n = 19) matched on age, sex, IQ, and sociodemographic risk. We find that trauma-exposed youth are more susceptible to conflict interference and this correlates with higher fronto-insular responses during conflict. Resting-state functional connectivity data collected in the same participants reveal increased connectivity of the insula to SN seed regions that is associated with diminished reward sensitivity, a critical risk/resilience trait following stress. In addition to altered intrinsic connectivity of the SN, we observed altered connectivity between the SN and default mode network (DMN) in trauma-exposed youth. These data uncover network-level disruptions in brain organization following one of the strongest predictors of illness, early life trauma, and demonstrate the relevance of observed neural effects for behavior and specific symptom dimensions. SN dysfunction may serve as a diathesis that contributes to illness and negative outcomes following childhood trauma.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) Face categorization conflict task and (B) group differences in conflict interference. Participants were instructed to identify the underlying face gender (male or female) while ignoring an overlying gender word (‘MALE’ or ‘FEMALE’). Trials varied such that distracter words either matched (“congruent”) or conflicted (“incongruent”) with the underlying face. Trauma-exposed youth show a greater loss of accuracy for incongruent relative to congruent trials (I − C). Negative values indicate a loss in performance. ***p < 0.001, two-sample t-test. Error bars represent standard error.
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f0005: (A) Face categorization conflict task and (B) group differences in conflict interference. Participants were instructed to identify the underlying face gender (male or female) while ignoring an overlying gender word (‘MALE’ or ‘FEMALE’). Trials varied such that distracter words either matched (“congruent”) or conflicted (“incongruent”) with the underlying face. Trauma-exposed youth show a greater loss of accuracy for incongruent relative to congruent trials (I − C). Negative values indicate a loss in performance. ***p < 0.001, two-sample t-test. Error bars represent standard error.

Mentions: During fMRI, participants underwent a face categorization conflict task adapted from Egner et al. (2008). The task consisted of 163 presentations of happy or fearful facial expression photographs, overlaid with the words “FEMALE” or “MALE” to create categorically congruent and incongruent stimuli (see Fig. 1A). Participants were instructed to identify the gender of the face stimuli with a button press response, while trying to ignore the task-irrelevant gender word stimuli. Stimuli were presented for 1000 ms, with a varying interstimulus interval of 2000–4000 ms (mean = 3000 ms), in a pseudorandom order, counterbalanced across trial types for expression, word, response button, and gender. The original task (Egner et al., 2008) utilized adult face stimuli. Here, we adapted the task for children by utilizing an established set of child and adolescent face stimuli (Egger et al., 2011), minimizing the complex relations inherent in adult face stimuli (Marusak et al., 2013). Stimuli were presented with EPrime Software v.2.0 (Psychology Software Tools, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA) during fMRI scanning and displayed on a back-projection screen viewed by participants via a mirror attached to the head coil. Task duration was 12:46. Participants with poor task performance (<50% accuracy) or errors in behavioral data collection were not included in the study sample. For the remaining participants, task accuracy was fair (mean = 86.4%, SD = 9.92%). Reaction time (RT) was unavailable for one participant due to errors in data collection, and this participant was therefore not included in RT analyses but retained in all other analyses for completeness.


Disrupted insula-based neural circuit organization and conflict interference in trauma-exposed youth.

Marusak HA, Etkin A, Thomason ME - Neuroimage Clin (2015)

(A) Face categorization conflict task and (B) group differences in conflict interference. Participants were instructed to identify the underlying face gender (male or female) while ignoring an overlying gender word (‘MALE’ or ‘FEMALE’). Trials varied such that distracter words either matched (“congruent”) or conflicted (“incongruent”) with the underlying face. Trauma-exposed youth show a greater loss of accuracy for incongruent relative to congruent trials (I − C). Negative values indicate a loss in performance. ***p < 0.001, two-sample t-test. Error bars represent standard error.
© Copyright Policy - CC BY-NC-ND
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4477108&req=5

f0005: (A) Face categorization conflict task and (B) group differences in conflict interference. Participants were instructed to identify the underlying face gender (male or female) while ignoring an overlying gender word (‘MALE’ or ‘FEMALE’). Trials varied such that distracter words either matched (“congruent”) or conflicted (“incongruent”) with the underlying face. Trauma-exposed youth show a greater loss of accuracy for incongruent relative to congruent trials (I − C). Negative values indicate a loss in performance. ***p < 0.001, two-sample t-test. Error bars represent standard error.
Mentions: During fMRI, participants underwent a face categorization conflict task adapted from Egner et al. (2008). The task consisted of 163 presentations of happy or fearful facial expression photographs, overlaid with the words “FEMALE” or “MALE” to create categorically congruent and incongruent stimuli (see Fig. 1A). Participants were instructed to identify the gender of the face stimuli with a button press response, while trying to ignore the task-irrelevant gender word stimuli. Stimuli were presented for 1000 ms, with a varying interstimulus interval of 2000–4000 ms (mean = 3000 ms), in a pseudorandom order, counterbalanced across trial types for expression, word, response button, and gender. The original task (Egner et al., 2008) utilized adult face stimuli. Here, we adapted the task for children by utilizing an established set of child and adolescent face stimuli (Egger et al., 2011), minimizing the complex relations inherent in adult face stimuli (Marusak et al., 2013). Stimuli were presented with EPrime Software v.2.0 (Psychology Software Tools, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA) during fMRI scanning and displayed on a back-projection screen viewed by participants via a mirror attached to the head coil. Task duration was 12:46. Participants with poor task performance (<50% accuracy) or errors in behavioral data collection were not included in the study sample. For the remaining participants, task accuracy was fair (mean = 86.4%, SD = 9.92%). Reaction time (RT) was unavailable for one participant due to errors in data collection, and this participant was therefore not included in RT analyses but retained in all other analyses for completeness.

Bottom Line: We find that trauma-exposed youth are more susceptible to conflict interference and this correlates with higher fronto-insular responses during conflict.Resting-state functional connectivity data collected in the same participants reveal increased connectivity of the insula to SN seed regions that is associated with diminished reward sensitivity, a critical risk/resilience trait following stress.In addition to altered intrinsic connectivity of the SN, we observed altered connectivity between the SN and default mode network (DMN) in trauma-exposed youth.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA ; Merrill Palmer Skillman Institute for Child and Family Development, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA.

ABSTRACT
Childhood trauma exposure is a potent risk factor for psychopathology. Emerging research suggests that aberrant saliency processing underlies the link between early trauma exposure and later cognitive and socioemotional deficits that are hallmark of several psychiatric disorders. Here, we examine brain and behavioral responses during a face categorization conflict task, and relate these to intrinsic connectivity of the salience network (SN). The results demonstrate a unique pattern of SN dysfunction in youth exposed to trauma (n = 14) relative to comparison youth (n = 19) matched on age, sex, IQ, and sociodemographic risk. We find that trauma-exposed youth are more susceptible to conflict interference and this correlates with higher fronto-insular responses during conflict. Resting-state functional connectivity data collected in the same participants reveal increased connectivity of the insula to SN seed regions that is associated with diminished reward sensitivity, a critical risk/resilience trait following stress. In addition to altered intrinsic connectivity of the SN, we observed altered connectivity between the SN and default mode network (DMN) in trauma-exposed youth. These data uncover network-level disruptions in brain organization following one of the strongest predictors of illness, early life trauma, and demonstrate the relevance of observed neural effects for behavior and specific symptom dimensions. SN dysfunction may serve as a diathesis that contributes to illness and negative outcomes following childhood trauma.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus