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Preference bias of head orientation in choosing between two non-durables.

Funaya H, Shibata T - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: We used real non-durable products (cheap snacks and clothing) on a shopping shelf.The results showed that there was a significant preference bias in head orientation at the beginning 1 s when the subjects stood straight toward the shelf, and that the head orientation was more biased toward the selected item than the gaze and the center of pressure at the ending 1 s.Manipulating body orientation did not affect the result of choice.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology Kitakyushu City, Fukuoka, Japan.

ABSTRACT
The goal of this study is to investigate how customers' gaze, head and body orientations reflect their choices. Although the relationship between human choice and gaze behavior has been well-studied, other behaviors such as head and body are unknown. We conducted a two-alternatives-forced-choice task to examine (1) whether preference bias, i.e., a positional bias in gaze, head and body toward the item that was later chosen, exists in choice, (2) when preference bias is observed and when prediction of the resulting choice becomes possible (3) whether human choice is affected when the body orientations are manipulated. We used real non-durable products (cheap snacks and clothing) on a shopping shelf. The results showed that there was a significant preference bias in head orientation at the beginning 1 s when the subjects stood straight toward the shelf, and that the head orientation was more biased toward the selected item than the gaze and the center of pressure at the ending 1 s. Manipulating body orientation did not affect the result of choice. The preference bias detected by observing the head orientation would be useful in marketing science for predicting customers' choice.

No MeSH data available.


Definition of head center sh(t) and gaze sg(t) in the head-mounted camera's view: The item center o is semi-manually tracked and c(t) is calculated on the axis that starts from the left edge (shown on the top of the image). Then, sh(t) and sg(t) are defined by the coordinate axis shown at the bottom of the image where c(t) was set as the origin. The circled e is the gaze point reported by the eye tracker. Note that the sign of sh(t) is positive when the head is oriented to right and negative for the left orientation.
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Figure 3: Definition of head center sh(t) and gaze sg(t) in the head-mounted camera's view: The item center o is semi-manually tracked and c(t) is calculated on the axis that starts from the left edge (shown on the top of the image). Then, sh(t) and sg(t) are defined by the coordinate axis shown at the bottom of the image where c(t) was set as the origin. The circled e is the gaze point reported by the eye tracker. Note that the sign of sh(t) is positive when the head is oriented to right and negative for the left orientation.

Mentions: Figure 3 illustrates how we calculated sh(t) and sg(t). sh(t) was defined as the point at which the imaginary normal vector of the subject's face intersected the shelf surface. To calculate sh(t) and sg(t), we needed to track the center of the items in the head view. To do so, we first manually tracked the center of the items (also in Figure 3) every 2 s throughout a trial by mouse clicking. Then, marked points were interpolated by applying a global Lucas-Kanade optical flow (Lucas and Kanade, 1981) and applying a tracking method called good features to track (Tomasi and Shi, 1994). These algorithms allowed us to find identical points in the two images and to calculate whole view shifts in adjacent frames.


Preference bias of head orientation in choosing between two non-durables.

Funaya H, Shibata T - Front Psychol (2015)

Definition of head center sh(t) and gaze sg(t) in the head-mounted camera's view: The item center o is semi-manually tracked and c(t) is calculated on the axis that starts from the left edge (shown on the top of the image). Then, sh(t) and sg(t) are defined by the coordinate axis shown at the bottom of the image where c(t) was set as the origin. The circled e is the gaze point reported by the eye tracker. Note that the sign of sh(t) is positive when the head is oriented to right and negative for the left orientation.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4477059&req=5

Figure 3: Definition of head center sh(t) and gaze sg(t) in the head-mounted camera's view: The item center o is semi-manually tracked and c(t) is calculated on the axis that starts from the left edge (shown on the top of the image). Then, sh(t) and sg(t) are defined by the coordinate axis shown at the bottom of the image where c(t) was set as the origin. The circled e is the gaze point reported by the eye tracker. Note that the sign of sh(t) is positive when the head is oriented to right and negative for the left orientation.
Mentions: Figure 3 illustrates how we calculated sh(t) and sg(t). sh(t) was defined as the point at which the imaginary normal vector of the subject's face intersected the shelf surface. To calculate sh(t) and sg(t), we needed to track the center of the items in the head view. To do so, we first manually tracked the center of the items (also in Figure 3) every 2 s throughout a trial by mouse clicking. Then, marked points were interpolated by applying a global Lucas-Kanade optical flow (Lucas and Kanade, 1981) and applying a tracking method called good features to track (Tomasi and Shi, 1994). These algorithms allowed us to find identical points in the two images and to calculate whole view shifts in adjacent frames.

Bottom Line: We used real non-durable products (cheap snacks and clothing) on a shopping shelf.The results showed that there was a significant preference bias in head orientation at the beginning 1 s when the subjects stood straight toward the shelf, and that the head orientation was more biased toward the selected item than the gaze and the center of pressure at the ending 1 s.Manipulating body orientation did not affect the result of choice.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology Kitakyushu City, Fukuoka, Japan.

ABSTRACT
The goal of this study is to investigate how customers' gaze, head and body orientations reflect their choices. Although the relationship between human choice and gaze behavior has been well-studied, other behaviors such as head and body are unknown. We conducted a two-alternatives-forced-choice task to examine (1) whether preference bias, i.e., a positional bias in gaze, head and body toward the item that was later chosen, exists in choice, (2) when preference bias is observed and when prediction of the resulting choice becomes possible (3) whether human choice is affected when the body orientations are manipulated. We used real non-durable products (cheap snacks and clothing) on a shopping shelf. The results showed that there was a significant preference bias in head orientation at the beginning 1 s when the subjects stood straight toward the shelf, and that the head orientation was more biased toward the selected item than the gaze and the center of pressure at the ending 1 s. Manipulating body orientation did not affect the result of choice. The preference bias detected by observing the head orientation would be useful in marketing science for predicting customers' choice.

No MeSH data available.