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Dopamine D4 receptor polymorphism and sex interact to predict children's affective knowledge.

Ben-Israel S, Uzefovsky F, Ebstein RP, Knafo-Noam A - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: Previous studies found that cognitive empathy and ToM are heritable, yet little is known regarding the specific genes involved in individual variability in affective knowledge.The findings suggest a significant interaction between sex and the DRD4-III polymorphism, replicated in both age groups.The results support the importance of DRD4-III polymorphism and sex differences to social development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem Jerusalem, Israel ; Department of Psychology, Academic College of Tel Aviv-Yaffo Tel Aviv, Israel.

ABSTRACT
Affective knowledge, the ability to understand others' emotional states, is considered to be a fundamental part in efficient social interaction. Affective knowledge can be seen as related to cognitive empathy, and in the framework of theory of mind (ToM) as affective ToM. Previous studies found that cognitive empathy and ToM are heritable, yet little is known regarding the specific genes involved in individual variability in affective knowledge. Investigating the genetic basis of affective knowledge is important for understanding brain mechanisms underlying socio-cognitive abilities. The 7-repeat (7R) allele within the third exon of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4-III) has been a focus of interest, due to accumulated knowledge regarding its relevance to individual differences in social behavior. A recent study suggests that an interaction between the DRD4-III polymorphism and sex is associated with cognitive empathy among adults. We aimed to examine the same association in two childhood age groups. Children (N = 280, age 3.5 years, N = 283, age 5 years) participated as part of the Longitudinal Israel Study of Twins. Affective knowledge was assessed through children's responses to an illustrated story describing different emotional situations, told in a laboratory setting. The findings suggest a significant interaction between sex and the DRD4-III polymorphism, replicated in both age groups. Boy carriers of the 7R allele had higher affective knowledge scores than girls, whereas in the absence of the 7R there was no significant sex effect on affective knowledge. The results support the importance of DRD4-III polymorphism and sex differences to social development. Possible explanations for differences from adult findings are discussed, as are pathways for future studies.

No MeSH data available.


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The effect of DRD4-III polymorphism and sex on affective knowledge (5 years old).
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Figure 4: The effect of DRD4-III polymorphism and sex on affective knowledge (5 years old).

Mentions: Furthermore, the direction of effects was similar in both ages. We examined simple effects in order to understand the nature of the interaction. Mean comparison indicated that among carriers of the 7R allele, boys had higher affective knowledge scores (M = 0.13, SE = 0.11) than girls (M = -0.18, SE = 0.09), whereas no such effect was found for non-carriers (M = -0.01, SE = 0.08 vs. M = 0.04, SE = 0.08, respectively; see Figure 4). The sex effect on affective knowledge was significant for carriers of the 7R allele [Wald χ2(1, N = 283) = 4.816, p = 0.03], showing that in the presence of the 7R allele boys scored significantly higher (M = 0.13, SE = 0.11) than girls (M = -0.18, SE = 0.09). For non-carriers of the 7R there was no significant sex effect on affective knowledge [Wald χ2(1, N = 283) = 0.28, p = 0.56]. Examination of the genotype effect separately for boys and girls yielded no significant effect for boys [Wald χ2(1, N = 283) = 1.08, p = 0.30] or for girls [Wald χ2(1, N = 283) = 3.23, p = 0.07].


Dopamine D4 receptor polymorphism and sex interact to predict children's affective knowledge.

Ben-Israel S, Uzefovsky F, Ebstein RP, Knafo-Noam A - Front Psychol (2015)

The effect of DRD4-III polymorphism and sex on affective knowledge (5 years old).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4477057&req=5

Figure 4: The effect of DRD4-III polymorphism and sex on affective knowledge (5 years old).
Mentions: Furthermore, the direction of effects was similar in both ages. We examined simple effects in order to understand the nature of the interaction. Mean comparison indicated that among carriers of the 7R allele, boys had higher affective knowledge scores (M = 0.13, SE = 0.11) than girls (M = -0.18, SE = 0.09), whereas no such effect was found for non-carriers (M = -0.01, SE = 0.08 vs. M = 0.04, SE = 0.08, respectively; see Figure 4). The sex effect on affective knowledge was significant for carriers of the 7R allele [Wald χ2(1, N = 283) = 4.816, p = 0.03], showing that in the presence of the 7R allele boys scored significantly higher (M = 0.13, SE = 0.11) than girls (M = -0.18, SE = 0.09). For non-carriers of the 7R there was no significant sex effect on affective knowledge [Wald χ2(1, N = 283) = 0.28, p = 0.56]. Examination of the genotype effect separately for boys and girls yielded no significant effect for boys [Wald χ2(1, N = 283) = 1.08, p = 0.30] or for girls [Wald χ2(1, N = 283) = 3.23, p = 0.07].

Bottom Line: Previous studies found that cognitive empathy and ToM are heritable, yet little is known regarding the specific genes involved in individual variability in affective knowledge.The findings suggest a significant interaction between sex and the DRD4-III polymorphism, replicated in both age groups.The results support the importance of DRD4-III polymorphism and sex differences to social development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem Jerusalem, Israel ; Department of Psychology, Academic College of Tel Aviv-Yaffo Tel Aviv, Israel.

ABSTRACT
Affective knowledge, the ability to understand others' emotional states, is considered to be a fundamental part in efficient social interaction. Affective knowledge can be seen as related to cognitive empathy, and in the framework of theory of mind (ToM) as affective ToM. Previous studies found that cognitive empathy and ToM are heritable, yet little is known regarding the specific genes involved in individual variability in affective knowledge. Investigating the genetic basis of affective knowledge is important for understanding brain mechanisms underlying socio-cognitive abilities. The 7-repeat (7R) allele within the third exon of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4-III) has been a focus of interest, due to accumulated knowledge regarding its relevance to individual differences in social behavior. A recent study suggests that an interaction between the DRD4-III polymorphism and sex is associated with cognitive empathy among adults. We aimed to examine the same association in two childhood age groups. Children (N = 280, age 3.5 years, N = 283, age 5 years) participated as part of the Longitudinal Israel Study of Twins. Affective knowledge was assessed through children's responses to an illustrated story describing different emotional situations, told in a laboratory setting. The findings suggest a significant interaction between sex and the DRD4-III polymorphism, replicated in both age groups. Boy carriers of the 7R allele had higher affective knowledge scores than girls, whereas in the absence of the 7R there was no significant sex effect on affective knowledge. The results support the importance of DRD4-III polymorphism and sex differences to social development. Possible explanations for differences from adult findings are discussed, as are pathways for future studies.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus