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Temporally Unpredictable Sounds Exert a Context-Dependent Influence on Evaluation of Unrelated Images.

Bach DR, Seifritz E, Dolan RJ - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Here, we find that humans evaluate unrelated neutral pictures as more negative when these are presented together with a temporally unpredictable sound sequence, compared to a predictable sequence.Control experiments suggest this effect is specific to interspersed presentation of negative and neutral visual stimuli.We discuss how these findings might account for previous data on the effects of unpredictable sounds, in humans and rodents.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, University College London, London, United Kingdom; University Hospital of Psychiatry, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; Department of Psychology and Ergonomics, Berlin Institute of Technology, Berlin, Germany; Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, and Psychosomatics, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
Temporally unpredictable stimuli influence murine and human behaviour, as previously demonstrated for sequences of simple sounds with regular or irregular onset. It is unknown whether this influence is mediated by an evaluation of the unpredictable sound sequences themselves, or by an interaction with task context. Here, we find that humans evaluate unrelated neutral pictures as more negative when these are presented together with a temporally unpredictable sound sequence, compared to a predictable sequence. The same is observed for evaluation of neutral, angry and fearful face photographs. Control experiments suggest this effect is specific to interspersed presentation of negative and neutral visual stimuli. Unpredictable sounds presented on their own were evaluated as more activating, but not more aversive, and were preferred over predictable sounds. When presented alone, these sound sequences also did not elicit tonic autonomic arousal or negative mood change. We discuss how these findings might account for previous data on the effects of unpredictable sounds, in humans and rodents.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Stimulus ratings (mean ± standard error) for different pictures during silence, predictable, and unpredictable sound sequence.* p < .05, ** p < .01, *** p < .0005.
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pone.0131065.g001: Stimulus ratings (mean ± standard error) for different pictures during silence, predictable, and unpredictable sound sequence.* p < .05, ** p < .01, *** p < .0005.

Mentions: Across all conditions, aversive pictures were more often rated negative than neutral pictures (Tables 2–3, Fig 1). A valence × sound interaction meant that neutral pictures were more often rated negative in the unpredictable than in the predictable condition (post hoc t-test: t(37) = 2.6; p = .02, 2-tailed, uncorrected), with no difference for aversive pictures (post hoc t-test: t(37) = -1.8; p = .08, 2-tailed, uncorrected). This interaction survived (all p < .05) correction for baseline arousal, state anxiety, and trait anxiety in separate ANCOVAs that included both the covariate and its interaction with valence.


Temporally Unpredictable Sounds Exert a Context-Dependent Influence on Evaluation of Unrelated Images.

Bach DR, Seifritz E, Dolan RJ - PLoS ONE (2015)

Stimulus ratings (mean ± standard error) for different pictures during silence, predictable, and unpredictable sound sequence.* p < .05, ** p < .01, *** p < .0005.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4476782&req=5

pone.0131065.g001: Stimulus ratings (mean ± standard error) for different pictures during silence, predictable, and unpredictable sound sequence.* p < .05, ** p < .01, *** p < .0005.
Mentions: Across all conditions, aversive pictures were more often rated negative than neutral pictures (Tables 2–3, Fig 1). A valence × sound interaction meant that neutral pictures were more often rated negative in the unpredictable than in the predictable condition (post hoc t-test: t(37) = 2.6; p = .02, 2-tailed, uncorrected), with no difference for aversive pictures (post hoc t-test: t(37) = -1.8; p = .08, 2-tailed, uncorrected). This interaction survived (all p < .05) correction for baseline arousal, state anxiety, and trait anxiety in separate ANCOVAs that included both the covariate and its interaction with valence.

Bottom Line: Here, we find that humans evaluate unrelated neutral pictures as more negative when these are presented together with a temporally unpredictable sound sequence, compared to a predictable sequence.Control experiments suggest this effect is specific to interspersed presentation of negative and neutral visual stimuli.We discuss how these findings might account for previous data on the effects of unpredictable sounds, in humans and rodents.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, University College London, London, United Kingdom; University Hospital of Psychiatry, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; Department of Psychology and Ergonomics, Berlin Institute of Technology, Berlin, Germany; Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, and Psychosomatics, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
Temporally unpredictable stimuli influence murine and human behaviour, as previously demonstrated for sequences of simple sounds with regular or irregular onset. It is unknown whether this influence is mediated by an evaluation of the unpredictable sound sequences themselves, or by an interaction with task context. Here, we find that humans evaluate unrelated neutral pictures as more negative when these are presented together with a temporally unpredictable sound sequence, compared to a predictable sequence. The same is observed for evaluation of neutral, angry and fearful face photographs. Control experiments suggest this effect is specific to interspersed presentation of negative and neutral visual stimuli. Unpredictable sounds presented on their own were evaluated as more activating, but not more aversive, and were preferred over predictable sounds. When presented alone, these sound sequences also did not elicit tonic autonomic arousal or negative mood change. We discuss how these findings might account for previous data on the effects of unpredictable sounds, in humans and rodents.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus