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Tennis Play Intensity Distribution and Relation with Aerobic Fitness in Competitive Players.

Baiget E, Fernández-Fernández J, Iglesias X, Rodríguez FA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Moderate to high positive correlations were found between VT1, VT2 and VO2max, and the percentage of playing time spent in zone 1 (r = 0.68-0.75), as well as low to high inverse correlations between the metabolic variables and the percentage of time spent in zone 2 and 3 (r = -0.49-0.75).Players with better aerobic fitness play at relatively lower intensities.We conclude that players spent more than 75% of the time in their low-intensity zone, with less than 25% of the time spent at moderate to high intensities.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Sport Performance Analysis Research Group, University of Vic, Barcelona, Spain.

ABSTRACT
The aims of this study were (i) to describe the relative intensity of simulated tennis play based on the cumulative time spent in three metabolic intensity zones, and (ii) to determine the relationships between this play intensity distribution and the aerobic fitness of a group of competitive players. 20 male players of advanced to elite level (ITN) performed an incremental on-court specific endurance tennis test to exhaustion to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and the first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT1, VT2). Ventilatory and gas exchange parameters were monitored using a telemetric portable gas analyser (K4 b2, Cosmed, Rome, Italy). Two weeks later the participants played a simulated tennis set against an opponent of similar level. Intensity zones (1: low, 2: moderate, and 3: high) were delimited by the individual VO2 values corresponding to VT1 and VT2, and expressed as percentage of maximum VO2 and heart rate. When expressed relative to VO2max, percentage of playing time in zone 1 (77 ± 25%) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than in zone 2 (20 ± 21%) and zone 3 (3 ± 5%). Moderate to high positive correlations were found between VT1, VT2 and VO2max, and the percentage of playing time spent in zone 1 (r = 0.68-0.75), as well as low to high inverse correlations between the metabolic variables and the percentage of time spent in zone 2 and 3 (r = -0.49-0.75). Players with better aerobic fitness play at relatively lower intensities. We conclude that players spent more than 75% of the time in their low-intensity zone, with less than 25% of the time spent at moderate to high intensities. Aerobic fitness appears to determine the metabolic intensity that players can sustain throughout the game.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic setting for the specific endurance field test [15].
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pone.0131304.g001: Schematic setting for the specific endurance field test [15].

Mentions: The test procedure has been described elsewhere [15]. Shortly, participants had to hit balls coming from a ball machine (Pop-Lob Airmatic 104, France), alternating forehand and backhand strokes, cross-court or down the line in a prescribed pattern (i.e., drive, topspin). The landing point for the balls was chosen about 2 m in front of the baseline, alternating balls to the right and the left corners (Fig 1). The test began with a ball frequency of 9 shots·min-1, which was increased by 2 shots·min-1 every 2 min. The test ended at the player’s request or stopped by the researchers if the player was no longer able to fulfil the test criteria (i.e., the player was no longer able to perform strokes with acceptable stroke technique and precision, determined by the experienced researchers, through subjective observation). In addition to the physiological measurements, an objective evaluation of the technical effectiveness (TE) was carried out. TE was calculated based on the percentage of hits and errors, and two performance criteria were defined: (1) precision: the ball returned by the player had to bounce inside the target (i.e., 3.1 by 4.5 m square located 1 m from the service line and 1 m over the prolongation of the centre service line), and (2) power: once the ball was bouncing inside the target, it had to go over the power line (located between 5 m from the centre of the baseline and 4 m from the side line), before bouncing a second time. A hit was considered successful when both performance criteria were fulfilled at once (precision and power). A minimum of 40 new tennis balls (Babolat Team) was used for each test. The ball machine was manually calibrated before each test and the device’s reliability was assessed by manual timing (mean CV of ball frequency = 3.5 ± 0.9%) and using a radar device (Stalker ATS 4.02, USA) (mean ball velocity = 68.6 ± 1.9 km·h-1; CV = 2.7%).


Tennis Play Intensity Distribution and Relation with Aerobic Fitness in Competitive Players.

Baiget E, Fernández-Fernández J, Iglesias X, Rodríguez FA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Schematic setting for the specific endurance field test [15].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4476777&req=5

pone.0131304.g001: Schematic setting for the specific endurance field test [15].
Mentions: The test procedure has been described elsewhere [15]. Shortly, participants had to hit balls coming from a ball machine (Pop-Lob Airmatic 104, France), alternating forehand and backhand strokes, cross-court or down the line in a prescribed pattern (i.e., drive, topspin). The landing point for the balls was chosen about 2 m in front of the baseline, alternating balls to the right and the left corners (Fig 1). The test began with a ball frequency of 9 shots·min-1, which was increased by 2 shots·min-1 every 2 min. The test ended at the player’s request or stopped by the researchers if the player was no longer able to fulfil the test criteria (i.e., the player was no longer able to perform strokes with acceptable stroke technique and precision, determined by the experienced researchers, through subjective observation). In addition to the physiological measurements, an objective evaluation of the technical effectiveness (TE) was carried out. TE was calculated based on the percentage of hits and errors, and two performance criteria were defined: (1) precision: the ball returned by the player had to bounce inside the target (i.e., 3.1 by 4.5 m square located 1 m from the service line and 1 m over the prolongation of the centre service line), and (2) power: once the ball was bouncing inside the target, it had to go over the power line (located between 5 m from the centre of the baseline and 4 m from the side line), before bouncing a second time. A hit was considered successful when both performance criteria were fulfilled at once (precision and power). A minimum of 40 new tennis balls (Babolat Team) was used for each test. The ball machine was manually calibrated before each test and the device’s reliability was assessed by manual timing (mean CV of ball frequency = 3.5 ± 0.9%) and using a radar device (Stalker ATS 4.02, USA) (mean ball velocity = 68.6 ± 1.9 km·h-1; CV = 2.7%).

Bottom Line: Moderate to high positive correlations were found between VT1, VT2 and VO2max, and the percentage of playing time spent in zone 1 (r = 0.68-0.75), as well as low to high inverse correlations between the metabolic variables and the percentage of time spent in zone 2 and 3 (r = -0.49-0.75).Players with better aerobic fitness play at relatively lower intensities.We conclude that players spent more than 75% of the time in their low-intensity zone, with less than 25% of the time spent at moderate to high intensities.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Sport Performance Analysis Research Group, University of Vic, Barcelona, Spain.

ABSTRACT
The aims of this study were (i) to describe the relative intensity of simulated tennis play based on the cumulative time spent in three metabolic intensity zones, and (ii) to determine the relationships between this play intensity distribution and the aerobic fitness of a group of competitive players. 20 male players of advanced to elite level (ITN) performed an incremental on-court specific endurance tennis test to exhaustion to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and the first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT1, VT2). Ventilatory and gas exchange parameters were monitored using a telemetric portable gas analyser (K4 b2, Cosmed, Rome, Italy). Two weeks later the participants played a simulated tennis set against an opponent of similar level. Intensity zones (1: low, 2: moderate, and 3: high) were delimited by the individual VO2 values corresponding to VT1 and VT2, and expressed as percentage of maximum VO2 and heart rate. When expressed relative to VO2max, percentage of playing time in zone 1 (77 ± 25%) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than in zone 2 (20 ± 21%) and zone 3 (3 ± 5%). Moderate to high positive correlations were found between VT1, VT2 and VO2max, and the percentage of playing time spent in zone 1 (r = 0.68-0.75), as well as low to high inverse correlations between the metabolic variables and the percentage of time spent in zone 2 and 3 (r = -0.49-0.75). Players with better aerobic fitness play at relatively lower intensities. We conclude that players spent more than 75% of the time in their low-intensity zone, with less than 25% of the time spent at moderate to high intensities. Aerobic fitness appears to determine the metabolic intensity that players can sustain throughout the game.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus