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Spatial Change of Cruciate Ligaments in Rat Embryo Knee Joint by Three-Dimensional Reconstruction.

Zhang X, Aoyama T, Takaishi R, Higuchi S, Yamada S, Kuroki H, Takakuwa T - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The ACL angle and PCL angle gradually decreased.The cross angle of the cruciate ligaments changed in three planes.The primordium of the 3D structure of rat cruciate ligaments was constructed from the early stage, with the completion of the development of the structures occurring just before birth.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Human Health Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

ABSTRACT
This study aimed to analyze the spatial developmental changes of rat cruciate ligaments by three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction using episcopic fluorescence image capture (EFIC). Cruciate ligaments of Wister rat embryos between embryonic day (E) 16 and E20 were analyzed. Samples were sectioned and visualized using EFIC. 3D reconstructions were generated using Amira software. The length of the cruciate ligaments, distances between attachment points to femur and tibia, angles of the cruciate ligaments and the cross angle of the cruciate ligaments were measured. The shape of cruciate ligaments was clearly visible at E17. The lengths of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) increased gradually from E17 to E19 and drastically at E20. Distances between attachment points to the femur and tibia gradually increased. The ACL angle and PCL angle gradually decreased. The cross angle of the cruciate ligaments changed in three planes. The primordium of the 3D structure of rat cruciate ligaments was constructed from the early stage, with the completion of the development of the structures occurring just before birth.

No MeSH data available.


Spatial changes of the attachment points of the cruciate ligaments in each dimension.The average coordinates of the attachment points at each stage (purple; E17, green; E18, yellow; E19, red; E20) in the sagittal (A), frontal (B), and horizontal (C) planes. Femoral attachment of ACL (fACL). Femoral attachment of PCL (fPCL). Tibial attachment of ACL (tACL). Tibial attachment of PCL (tPCL). Superior (Sup), interior (Inf), anterior (Ant), posterior (Pos), medial (Med), lateral (Lat).
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pone.0131092.g007: Spatial changes of the attachment points of the cruciate ligaments in each dimension.The average coordinates of the attachment points at each stage (purple; E17, green; E18, yellow; E19, red; E20) in the sagittal (A), frontal (B), and horizontal (C) planes. Femoral attachment of ACL (fACL). Femoral attachment of PCL (fPCL). Tibial attachment of ACL (tACL). Tibial attachment of PCL (tPCL). Superior (Sup), interior (Inf), anterior (Ant), posterior (Pos), medial (Med), lateral (Lat).

Mentions: To understand the spatial changes of the cruciate ligaments, the mean coordinates of the four attachment points of the cruciate ligaments (fACL, fPCL, tACL, tPCL) were plotted at each stage in sagittal (Fig 7A), coronal (Fig 7B) and horizontal planes (Fig 7C).


Spatial Change of Cruciate Ligaments in Rat Embryo Knee Joint by Three-Dimensional Reconstruction.

Zhang X, Aoyama T, Takaishi R, Higuchi S, Yamada S, Kuroki H, Takakuwa T - PLoS ONE (2015)

Spatial changes of the attachment points of the cruciate ligaments in each dimension.The average coordinates of the attachment points at each stage (purple; E17, green; E18, yellow; E19, red; E20) in the sagittal (A), frontal (B), and horizontal (C) planes. Femoral attachment of ACL (fACL). Femoral attachment of PCL (fPCL). Tibial attachment of ACL (tACL). Tibial attachment of PCL (tPCL). Superior (Sup), interior (Inf), anterior (Ant), posterior (Pos), medial (Med), lateral (Lat).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4476736&req=5

pone.0131092.g007: Spatial changes of the attachment points of the cruciate ligaments in each dimension.The average coordinates of the attachment points at each stage (purple; E17, green; E18, yellow; E19, red; E20) in the sagittal (A), frontal (B), and horizontal (C) planes. Femoral attachment of ACL (fACL). Femoral attachment of PCL (fPCL). Tibial attachment of ACL (tACL). Tibial attachment of PCL (tPCL). Superior (Sup), interior (Inf), anterior (Ant), posterior (Pos), medial (Med), lateral (Lat).
Mentions: To understand the spatial changes of the cruciate ligaments, the mean coordinates of the four attachment points of the cruciate ligaments (fACL, fPCL, tACL, tPCL) were plotted at each stage in sagittal (Fig 7A), coronal (Fig 7B) and horizontal planes (Fig 7C).

Bottom Line: The ACL angle and PCL angle gradually decreased.The cross angle of the cruciate ligaments changed in three planes.The primordium of the 3D structure of rat cruciate ligaments was constructed from the early stage, with the completion of the development of the structures occurring just before birth.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Human Health Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

ABSTRACT
This study aimed to analyze the spatial developmental changes of rat cruciate ligaments by three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction using episcopic fluorescence image capture (EFIC). Cruciate ligaments of Wister rat embryos between embryonic day (E) 16 and E20 were analyzed. Samples were sectioned and visualized using EFIC. 3D reconstructions were generated using Amira software. The length of the cruciate ligaments, distances between attachment points to femur and tibia, angles of the cruciate ligaments and the cross angle of the cruciate ligaments were measured. The shape of cruciate ligaments was clearly visible at E17. The lengths of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) increased gradually from E17 to E19 and drastically at E20. Distances between attachment points to the femur and tibia gradually increased. The ACL angle and PCL angle gradually decreased. The cross angle of the cruciate ligaments changed in three planes. The primordium of the 3D structure of rat cruciate ligaments was constructed from the early stage, with the completion of the development of the structures occurring just before birth.

No MeSH data available.