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Spatial Change of Cruciate Ligaments in Rat Embryo Knee Joint by Three-Dimensional Reconstruction.

Zhang X, Aoyama T, Takaishi R, Higuchi S, Yamada S, Kuroki H, Takakuwa T - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The ACL angle and PCL angle gradually decreased.The cross angle of the cruciate ligaments changed in three planes.The primordium of the 3D structure of rat cruciate ligaments was constructed from the early stage, with the completion of the development of the structures occurring just before birth.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Human Health Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

ABSTRACT
This study aimed to analyze the spatial developmental changes of rat cruciate ligaments by three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction using episcopic fluorescence image capture (EFIC). Cruciate ligaments of Wister rat embryos between embryonic day (E) 16 and E20 were analyzed. Samples were sectioned and visualized using EFIC. 3D reconstructions were generated using Amira software. The length of the cruciate ligaments, distances between attachment points to femur and tibia, angles of the cruciate ligaments and the cross angle of the cruciate ligaments were measured. The shape of cruciate ligaments was clearly visible at E17. The lengths of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) increased gradually from E17 to E19 and drastically at E20. Distances between attachment points to the femur and tibia gradually increased. The ACL angle and PCL angle gradually decreased. The cross angle of the cruciate ligaments changed in three planes. The primordium of the 3D structure of rat cruciate ligaments was constructed from the early stage, with the completion of the development of the structures occurring just before birth.

No MeSH data available.


Cross angle of cruciate ligaments in each dimension.A: Cross angle of cruciate ligaments in the sagittal plane [β(sagittal)]. Each small circle indicates the cross angle in each sample (purple; E17, green; E18, yellow; E19, red; E20). ** p < 0.01 (Tukey-Kramer test). B: Cross angle of cruciate ligaments in the coronal plane [β(frontal)]. Each small circle indicates the cross angle in each sample (purple; E17, green; E18, yellow; E19, red; E20). ** p < 0.01 (Tukey-Kramer test). C: Cross angle of cruciate ligaments in the horizontal plane [β(horizontal)]. Each small circle indicates the cross angle in each sample (purple; E17, green; E18, yellow; E19, red; E20). ** p < 0.01 (Tukey-Kramer test).
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pone.0131092.g006: Cross angle of cruciate ligaments in each dimension.A: Cross angle of cruciate ligaments in the sagittal plane [β(sagittal)]. Each small circle indicates the cross angle in each sample (purple; E17, green; E18, yellow; E19, red; E20). ** p < 0.01 (Tukey-Kramer test). B: Cross angle of cruciate ligaments in the coronal plane [β(frontal)]. Each small circle indicates the cross angle in each sample (purple; E17, green; E18, yellow; E19, red; E20). ** p < 0.01 (Tukey-Kramer test). C: Cross angle of cruciate ligaments in the horizontal plane [β(horizontal)]. Each small circle indicates the cross angle in each sample (purple; E17, green; E18, yellow; E19, red; E20). ** p < 0.01 (Tukey-Kramer test).

Mentions: The cruciate ligaments cross each other in three dimensions. The cross angle of the cruciate ligaments was measured in the sagittal, coronal, and horizontal planes [β(sagittal)/β(frontal)/β(horizontal)]. The mean β(sagittal) significantly increased at E19 (E17: 78.2 ± 0.6°, E18: 78.5 ± 1.4°, E19: 83.4 ± 0.6°) and further increased at E20 (E20: 90.3 ± 1.5°) (Fig 6A). The mean β(frontal) significantly increased at E18 (E17: 15.4 ± 0.9°, E18: 21.0 ± 0.8°), then increased at E20 (E19: 21.3 ± 1.1°, E20: 25.5 ± 1.3°) (Fig 6B). The mean β(horizontal) decreased at E18 (E17: 19.5 ± 1.1°, E18: 9.8 ± 1.1°) and did not change obviously subsequently (E19: 3.5 ± 1.3°, E20: 5.1 ± 1.7°) (Fig 6C).


Spatial Change of Cruciate Ligaments in Rat Embryo Knee Joint by Three-Dimensional Reconstruction.

Zhang X, Aoyama T, Takaishi R, Higuchi S, Yamada S, Kuroki H, Takakuwa T - PLoS ONE (2015)

Cross angle of cruciate ligaments in each dimension.A: Cross angle of cruciate ligaments in the sagittal plane [β(sagittal)]. Each small circle indicates the cross angle in each sample (purple; E17, green; E18, yellow; E19, red; E20). ** p < 0.01 (Tukey-Kramer test). B: Cross angle of cruciate ligaments in the coronal plane [β(frontal)]. Each small circle indicates the cross angle in each sample (purple; E17, green; E18, yellow; E19, red; E20). ** p < 0.01 (Tukey-Kramer test). C: Cross angle of cruciate ligaments in the horizontal plane [β(horizontal)]. Each small circle indicates the cross angle in each sample (purple; E17, green; E18, yellow; E19, red; E20). ** p < 0.01 (Tukey-Kramer test).
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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pone.0131092.g006: Cross angle of cruciate ligaments in each dimension.A: Cross angle of cruciate ligaments in the sagittal plane [β(sagittal)]. Each small circle indicates the cross angle in each sample (purple; E17, green; E18, yellow; E19, red; E20). ** p < 0.01 (Tukey-Kramer test). B: Cross angle of cruciate ligaments in the coronal plane [β(frontal)]. Each small circle indicates the cross angle in each sample (purple; E17, green; E18, yellow; E19, red; E20). ** p < 0.01 (Tukey-Kramer test). C: Cross angle of cruciate ligaments in the horizontal plane [β(horizontal)]. Each small circle indicates the cross angle in each sample (purple; E17, green; E18, yellow; E19, red; E20). ** p < 0.01 (Tukey-Kramer test).
Mentions: The cruciate ligaments cross each other in three dimensions. The cross angle of the cruciate ligaments was measured in the sagittal, coronal, and horizontal planes [β(sagittal)/β(frontal)/β(horizontal)]. The mean β(sagittal) significantly increased at E19 (E17: 78.2 ± 0.6°, E18: 78.5 ± 1.4°, E19: 83.4 ± 0.6°) and further increased at E20 (E20: 90.3 ± 1.5°) (Fig 6A). The mean β(frontal) significantly increased at E18 (E17: 15.4 ± 0.9°, E18: 21.0 ± 0.8°), then increased at E20 (E19: 21.3 ± 1.1°, E20: 25.5 ± 1.3°) (Fig 6B). The mean β(horizontal) decreased at E18 (E17: 19.5 ± 1.1°, E18: 9.8 ± 1.1°) and did not change obviously subsequently (E19: 3.5 ± 1.3°, E20: 5.1 ± 1.7°) (Fig 6C).

Bottom Line: The ACL angle and PCL angle gradually decreased.The cross angle of the cruciate ligaments changed in three planes.The primordium of the 3D structure of rat cruciate ligaments was constructed from the early stage, with the completion of the development of the structures occurring just before birth.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Human Health Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

ABSTRACT
This study aimed to analyze the spatial developmental changes of rat cruciate ligaments by three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction using episcopic fluorescence image capture (EFIC). Cruciate ligaments of Wister rat embryos between embryonic day (E) 16 and E20 were analyzed. Samples were sectioned and visualized using EFIC. 3D reconstructions were generated using Amira software. The length of the cruciate ligaments, distances between attachment points to femur and tibia, angles of the cruciate ligaments and the cross angle of the cruciate ligaments were measured. The shape of cruciate ligaments was clearly visible at E17. The lengths of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) increased gradually from E17 to E19 and drastically at E20. Distances between attachment points to the femur and tibia gradually increased. The ACL angle and PCL angle gradually decreased. The cross angle of the cruciate ligaments changed in three planes. The primordium of the 3D structure of rat cruciate ligaments was constructed from the early stage, with the completion of the development of the structures occurring just before birth.

No MeSH data available.