Limits...
Spatial Change of Cruciate Ligaments in Rat Embryo Knee Joint by Three-Dimensional Reconstruction.

Zhang X, Aoyama T, Takaishi R, Higuchi S, Yamada S, Kuroki H, Takakuwa T - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The ACL angle and PCL angle gradually decreased.The cross angle of the cruciate ligaments changed in three planes.The primordium of the 3D structure of rat cruciate ligaments was constructed from the early stage, with the completion of the development of the structures occurring just before birth.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Human Health Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

ABSTRACT
This study aimed to analyze the spatial developmental changes of rat cruciate ligaments by three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction using episcopic fluorescence image capture (EFIC). Cruciate ligaments of Wister rat embryos between embryonic day (E) 16 and E20 were analyzed. Samples were sectioned and visualized using EFIC. 3D reconstructions were generated using Amira software. The length of the cruciate ligaments, distances between attachment points to femur and tibia, angles of the cruciate ligaments and the cross angle of the cruciate ligaments were measured. The shape of cruciate ligaments was clearly visible at E17. The lengths of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) increased gradually from E17 to E19 and drastically at E20. Distances between attachment points to the femur and tibia gradually increased. The ACL angle and PCL angle gradually decreased. The cross angle of the cruciate ligaments changed in three planes. The primordium of the 3D structure of rat cruciate ligaments was constructed from the early stage, with the completion of the development of the structures occurring just before birth.

No MeSH data available.


The distance between the attachment points of the cruciate ligaments on the femur and tibia.A: The length of the distance between the attachment points of the ACL and PCL on the femur (LfCL). The small black circles indicate the distance in each sample. p < 0.05 (Test of Homogeneity of Variances). B: The length of the distance between the attachment points of the ACL and PCL on the tibia (LtCL). The small black circles indicate the distance in each sample. p < 0.05 (Test of Homogeneity of Variances).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4476736&req=5

pone.0131092.g004: The distance between the attachment points of the cruciate ligaments on the femur and tibia.A: The length of the distance between the attachment points of the ACL and PCL on the femur (LfCL). The small black circles indicate the distance in each sample. p < 0.05 (Test of Homogeneity of Variances). B: The length of the distance between the attachment points of the ACL and PCL on the tibia (LtCL). The small black circles indicate the distance in each sample. p < 0.05 (Test of Homogeneity of Variances).

Mentions: The distances between the attachments of the cruciate ligaments at the femur and tibia were measured as LfCL and LtCL respectively (Fig 1) at each stage. The mean LfCL gradually increased, but not significantly, from E17 to E20 (E17: 420.7 ± 34.8 μm, E18: 432.1 ± 40.1 μm, E19: 444.6 ± 35.2 μm, E20: 612.3 ± 205.9 μm) (Fig 4A).


Spatial Change of Cruciate Ligaments in Rat Embryo Knee Joint by Three-Dimensional Reconstruction.

Zhang X, Aoyama T, Takaishi R, Higuchi S, Yamada S, Kuroki H, Takakuwa T - PLoS ONE (2015)

The distance between the attachment points of the cruciate ligaments on the femur and tibia.A: The length of the distance between the attachment points of the ACL and PCL on the femur (LfCL). The small black circles indicate the distance in each sample. p < 0.05 (Test of Homogeneity of Variances). B: The length of the distance between the attachment points of the ACL and PCL on the tibia (LtCL). The small black circles indicate the distance in each sample. p < 0.05 (Test of Homogeneity of Variances).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4476736&req=5

pone.0131092.g004: The distance between the attachment points of the cruciate ligaments on the femur and tibia.A: The length of the distance between the attachment points of the ACL and PCL on the femur (LfCL). The small black circles indicate the distance in each sample. p < 0.05 (Test of Homogeneity of Variances). B: The length of the distance between the attachment points of the ACL and PCL on the tibia (LtCL). The small black circles indicate the distance in each sample. p < 0.05 (Test of Homogeneity of Variances).
Mentions: The distances between the attachments of the cruciate ligaments at the femur and tibia were measured as LfCL and LtCL respectively (Fig 1) at each stage. The mean LfCL gradually increased, but not significantly, from E17 to E20 (E17: 420.7 ± 34.8 μm, E18: 432.1 ± 40.1 μm, E19: 444.6 ± 35.2 μm, E20: 612.3 ± 205.9 μm) (Fig 4A).

Bottom Line: The ACL angle and PCL angle gradually decreased.The cross angle of the cruciate ligaments changed in three planes.The primordium of the 3D structure of rat cruciate ligaments was constructed from the early stage, with the completion of the development of the structures occurring just before birth.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Human Health Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

ABSTRACT
This study aimed to analyze the spatial developmental changes of rat cruciate ligaments by three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction using episcopic fluorescence image capture (EFIC). Cruciate ligaments of Wister rat embryos between embryonic day (E) 16 and E20 were analyzed. Samples were sectioned and visualized using EFIC. 3D reconstructions were generated using Amira software. The length of the cruciate ligaments, distances between attachment points to femur and tibia, angles of the cruciate ligaments and the cross angle of the cruciate ligaments were measured. The shape of cruciate ligaments was clearly visible at E17. The lengths of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) increased gradually from E17 to E19 and drastically at E20. Distances between attachment points to the femur and tibia gradually increased. The ACL angle and PCL angle gradually decreased. The cross angle of the cruciate ligaments changed in three planes. The primordium of the 3D structure of rat cruciate ligaments was constructed from the early stage, with the completion of the development of the structures occurring just before birth.

No MeSH data available.