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Spatial Change of Cruciate Ligaments in Rat Embryo Knee Joint by Three-Dimensional Reconstruction.

Zhang X, Aoyama T, Takaishi R, Higuchi S, Yamada S, Kuroki H, Takakuwa T - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The ACL angle and PCL angle gradually decreased.The cross angle of the cruciate ligaments changed in three planes.The primordium of the 3D structure of rat cruciate ligaments was constructed from the early stage, with the completion of the development of the structures occurring just before birth.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Human Health Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

ABSTRACT
This study aimed to analyze the spatial developmental changes of rat cruciate ligaments by three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction using episcopic fluorescence image capture (EFIC). Cruciate ligaments of Wister rat embryos between embryonic day (E) 16 and E20 were analyzed. Samples were sectioned and visualized using EFIC. 3D reconstructions were generated using Amira software. The length of the cruciate ligaments, distances between attachment points to femur and tibia, angles of the cruciate ligaments and the cross angle of the cruciate ligaments were measured. The shape of cruciate ligaments was clearly visible at E17. The lengths of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) increased gradually from E17 to E19 and drastically at E20. Distances between attachment points to the femur and tibia gradually increased. The ACL angle and PCL angle gradually decreased. The cross angle of the cruciate ligaments changed in three planes. The primordium of the 3D structure of rat cruciate ligaments was constructed from the early stage, with the completion of the development of the structures occurring just before birth.

No MeSH data available.


Length of cruciate ligaments.A: The length of the ACL at E17, E18, E19, and E20. The small red circles indicate the length of the ACL in each sample. *p < 0.05 (Dunnett T3 test). B: The length of the PCL at E17, E18, E19, and E20. The small blue circles indicate the length of the PCL in each sample. ** p < 0.01 (Tukey-Kramer test).
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pone.0131092.g003: Length of cruciate ligaments.A: The length of the ACL at E17, E18, E19, and E20. The small red circles indicate the length of the ACL in each sample. *p < 0.05 (Dunnett T3 test). B: The length of the PCL at E17, E18, E19, and E20. The small blue circles indicate the length of the PCL in each sample. ** p < 0.01 (Tukey-Kramer test).

Mentions: The lengths of the cruciate ligaments were measured as LACL and LPCL (Fig 1) at each stage. Because the borders of the cruciate ligaments became clear at E17, the lengths of them were measured from E17 (Fig 2B). The mean LACL gradually increased, but not significantly, from E17 to E19 (E17: 535.3 ± 39.3 μm, E18: 566.0 ± 57.3 μm, E19: 598.1 ± 55.3 μm), however drastically increased with a significant difference at E20 (913.6 ± 299.9 μm) (Fig 3A).


Spatial Change of Cruciate Ligaments in Rat Embryo Knee Joint by Three-Dimensional Reconstruction.

Zhang X, Aoyama T, Takaishi R, Higuchi S, Yamada S, Kuroki H, Takakuwa T - PLoS ONE (2015)

Length of cruciate ligaments.A: The length of the ACL at E17, E18, E19, and E20. The small red circles indicate the length of the ACL in each sample. *p < 0.05 (Dunnett T3 test). B: The length of the PCL at E17, E18, E19, and E20. The small blue circles indicate the length of the PCL in each sample. ** p < 0.01 (Tukey-Kramer test).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4476736&req=5

pone.0131092.g003: Length of cruciate ligaments.A: The length of the ACL at E17, E18, E19, and E20. The small red circles indicate the length of the ACL in each sample. *p < 0.05 (Dunnett T3 test). B: The length of the PCL at E17, E18, E19, and E20. The small blue circles indicate the length of the PCL in each sample. ** p < 0.01 (Tukey-Kramer test).
Mentions: The lengths of the cruciate ligaments were measured as LACL and LPCL (Fig 1) at each stage. Because the borders of the cruciate ligaments became clear at E17, the lengths of them were measured from E17 (Fig 2B). The mean LACL gradually increased, but not significantly, from E17 to E19 (E17: 535.3 ± 39.3 μm, E18: 566.0 ± 57.3 μm, E19: 598.1 ± 55.3 μm), however drastically increased with a significant difference at E20 (913.6 ± 299.9 μm) (Fig 3A).

Bottom Line: The ACL angle and PCL angle gradually decreased.The cross angle of the cruciate ligaments changed in three planes.The primordium of the 3D structure of rat cruciate ligaments was constructed from the early stage, with the completion of the development of the structures occurring just before birth.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Human Health Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

ABSTRACT
This study aimed to analyze the spatial developmental changes of rat cruciate ligaments by three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction using episcopic fluorescence image capture (EFIC). Cruciate ligaments of Wister rat embryos between embryonic day (E) 16 and E20 were analyzed. Samples were sectioned and visualized using EFIC. 3D reconstructions were generated using Amira software. The length of the cruciate ligaments, distances between attachment points to femur and tibia, angles of the cruciate ligaments and the cross angle of the cruciate ligaments were measured. The shape of cruciate ligaments was clearly visible at E17. The lengths of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) increased gradually from E17 to E19 and drastically at E20. Distances between attachment points to the femur and tibia gradually increased. The ACL angle and PCL angle gradually decreased. The cross angle of the cruciate ligaments changed in three planes. The primordium of the 3D structure of rat cruciate ligaments was constructed from the early stage, with the completion of the development of the structures occurring just before birth.

No MeSH data available.