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Spatial Change of Cruciate Ligaments in Rat Embryo Knee Joint by Three-Dimensional Reconstruction.

Zhang X, Aoyama T, Takaishi R, Higuchi S, Yamada S, Kuroki H, Takakuwa T - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The ACL angle and PCL angle gradually decreased.The cross angle of the cruciate ligaments changed in three planes.The primordium of the 3D structure of rat cruciate ligaments was constructed from the early stage, with the completion of the development of the structures occurring just before birth.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Human Health Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

ABSTRACT
This study aimed to analyze the spatial developmental changes of rat cruciate ligaments by three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction using episcopic fluorescence image capture (EFIC). Cruciate ligaments of Wister rat embryos between embryonic day (E) 16 and E20 were analyzed. Samples were sectioned and visualized using EFIC. 3D reconstructions were generated using Amira software. The length of the cruciate ligaments, distances between attachment points to femur and tibia, angles of the cruciate ligaments and the cross angle of the cruciate ligaments were measured. The shape of cruciate ligaments was clearly visible at E17. The lengths of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) increased gradually from E17 to E19 and drastically at E20. Distances between attachment points to the femur and tibia gradually increased. The ACL angle and PCL angle gradually decreased. The cross angle of the cruciate ligaments changed in three planes. The primordium of the 3D structure of rat cruciate ligaments was constructed from the early stage, with the completion of the development of the structures occurring just before birth.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Histological findings of cruciate ligaments.Histological images of sagittal sections of the knee joint by HE staining. a: Embryonic day (E) 16. The cross section of the knee showed no signs of the ACL and PCL in the interzone. b: E17. The cross section of knee clearly showed the ACL and PCL. c: E18. The cross section showed the PCL. d: E19. The cross section showed the ACL and PCL. e: E20. The border and bundle of the ACL were clearly visible. f: E20. The cross sections of the knee showed buckling of the ACL and PCL. Magnification x100. Bar = 100 μm.
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pone.0131092.g002: Histological findings of cruciate ligaments.Histological images of sagittal sections of the knee joint by HE staining. a: Embryonic day (E) 16. The cross section of the knee showed no signs of the ACL and PCL in the interzone. b: E17. The cross section of knee clearly showed the ACL and PCL. c: E18. The cross section showed the PCL. d: E19. The cross section showed the ACL and PCL. e: E20. The border and bundle of the ACL were clearly visible. f: E20. The cross sections of the knee showed buckling of the ACL and PCL. Magnification x100. Bar = 100 μm.

Mentions: The knee joint was observed using histological sections with HE staining between E16 and E20 (Fig 2). A low-density area corresponding to chondrification was seen between the femur, tibia, and fibula in histological section at E16 (Fig 2A). A three-layered structure corresponding to the interzone was seen as an area of higher cell density between the femur and tibia. The borders between the interzone and the bone primordia were not distinct. The ACL, PCL and cavity could not be observed at E16. The ACL and PCL were detected as a condensed group of spindle cells between the femur and tibia at E17 (Fig 2B). Loose mesenchymal cells with small capillaries containing erythrocytes and small cavities with thin epithelial cell walls were present around the ligaments. The bone primordia become distinct as the border is lined with the single layered cells. The direction of fiber growth could be distinguished at E18 (Fig 2C), and a clear difference in direction was observed at E19 (Fig 2D). The borders of the ligaments become sharp as the synovial cavity becomes large and close to the ligaments at E20 (Fig 2E and 2F). The ligaments seemed not to run straight and to be irregular in diameter in 2D sections, because of the buckling of the cruciate ligaments. The attachments of the ligaments were broad in width.


Spatial Change of Cruciate Ligaments in Rat Embryo Knee Joint by Three-Dimensional Reconstruction.

Zhang X, Aoyama T, Takaishi R, Higuchi S, Yamada S, Kuroki H, Takakuwa T - PLoS ONE (2015)

Histological findings of cruciate ligaments.Histological images of sagittal sections of the knee joint by HE staining. a: Embryonic day (E) 16. The cross section of the knee showed no signs of the ACL and PCL in the interzone. b: E17. The cross section of knee clearly showed the ACL and PCL. c: E18. The cross section showed the PCL. d: E19. The cross section showed the ACL and PCL. e: E20. The border and bundle of the ACL were clearly visible. f: E20. The cross sections of the knee showed buckling of the ACL and PCL. Magnification x100. Bar = 100 μm.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4476736&req=5

pone.0131092.g002: Histological findings of cruciate ligaments.Histological images of sagittal sections of the knee joint by HE staining. a: Embryonic day (E) 16. The cross section of the knee showed no signs of the ACL and PCL in the interzone. b: E17. The cross section of knee clearly showed the ACL and PCL. c: E18. The cross section showed the PCL. d: E19. The cross section showed the ACL and PCL. e: E20. The border and bundle of the ACL were clearly visible. f: E20. The cross sections of the knee showed buckling of the ACL and PCL. Magnification x100. Bar = 100 μm.
Mentions: The knee joint was observed using histological sections with HE staining between E16 and E20 (Fig 2). A low-density area corresponding to chondrification was seen between the femur, tibia, and fibula in histological section at E16 (Fig 2A). A three-layered structure corresponding to the interzone was seen as an area of higher cell density between the femur and tibia. The borders between the interzone and the bone primordia were not distinct. The ACL, PCL and cavity could not be observed at E16. The ACL and PCL were detected as a condensed group of spindle cells between the femur and tibia at E17 (Fig 2B). Loose mesenchymal cells with small capillaries containing erythrocytes and small cavities with thin epithelial cell walls were present around the ligaments. The bone primordia become distinct as the border is lined with the single layered cells. The direction of fiber growth could be distinguished at E18 (Fig 2C), and a clear difference in direction was observed at E19 (Fig 2D). The borders of the ligaments become sharp as the synovial cavity becomes large and close to the ligaments at E20 (Fig 2E and 2F). The ligaments seemed not to run straight and to be irregular in diameter in 2D sections, because of the buckling of the cruciate ligaments. The attachments of the ligaments were broad in width.

Bottom Line: The ACL angle and PCL angle gradually decreased.The cross angle of the cruciate ligaments changed in three planes.The primordium of the 3D structure of rat cruciate ligaments was constructed from the early stage, with the completion of the development of the structures occurring just before birth.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Human Health Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

ABSTRACT
This study aimed to analyze the spatial developmental changes of rat cruciate ligaments by three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction using episcopic fluorescence image capture (EFIC). Cruciate ligaments of Wister rat embryos between embryonic day (E) 16 and E20 were analyzed. Samples were sectioned and visualized using EFIC. 3D reconstructions were generated using Amira software. The length of the cruciate ligaments, distances between attachment points to femur and tibia, angles of the cruciate ligaments and the cross angle of the cruciate ligaments were measured. The shape of cruciate ligaments was clearly visible at E17. The lengths of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) increased gradually from E17 to E19 and drastically at E20. Distances between attachment points to the femur and tibia gradually increased. The ACL angle and PCL angle gradually decreased. The cross angle of the cruciate ligaments changed in three planes. The primordium of the 3D structure of rat cruciate ligaments was constructed from the early stage, with the completion of the development of the structures occurring just before birth.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus