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Spatial Change of Cruciate Ligaments in Rat Embryo Knee Joint by Three-Dimensional Reconstruction.

Zhang X, Aoyama T, Takaishi R, Higuchi S, Yamada S, Kuroki H, Takakuwa T - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The ACL angle and PCL angle gradually decreased.The cross angle of the cruciate ligaments changed in three planes.The primordium of the 3D structure of rat cruciate ligaments was constructed from the early stage, with the completion of the development of the structures occurring just before birth.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Human Health Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

ABSTRACT
This study aimed to analyze the spatial developmental changes of rat cruciate ligaments by three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction using episcopic fluorescence image capture (EFIC). Cruciate ligaments of Wister rat embryos between embryonic day (E) 16 and E20 were analyzed. Samples were sectioned and visualized using EFIC. 3D reconstructions were generated using Amira software. The length of the cruciate ligaments, distances between attachment points to femur and tibia, angles of the cruciate ligaments and the cross angle of the cruciate ligaments were measured. The shape of cruciate ligaments was clearly visible at E17. The lengths of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) increased gradually from E17 to E19 and drastically at E20. Distances between attachment points to the femur and tibia gradually increased. The ACL angle and PCL angle gradually decreased. The cross angle of the cruciate ligaments changed in three planes. The primordium of the 3D structure of rat cruciate ligaments was constructed from the early stage, with the completion of the development of the structures occurring just before birth.

No MeSH data available.


Imaging of measurement points.A: A 3D reconstruction of the knee joint was generated from 2D continuous sections with Amira software. Femur and tibia (white), ACL (red) and PCL (blue). Red points indicate the attachment of the ACL to the femur and tibia. Blue points indicate the attachment of the PCL to the femur and tibia. The black point indicates the cross point of both ligaments. B: Measurement points. fACL: femoral attachment of ACL. fPCL: femoral attachment of PCL. tACL: tibial attachment of ACL. tPCL: tibial attachment of PCL. The cross point of ACL and PCL was indicated as intersection of cruciate ligament (iCL). Length of ACL (LACL) was calculated by length of ACL on femoral side (LAf) plus length of ACL on tibial side (LAt). Length of PCL (LPCL) was calculated by length of PCL on femoral side (LPf) plus length of PCL on tibial side (LPt).
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pone.0131092.g001: Imaging of measurement points.A: A 3D reconstruction of the knee joint was generated from 2D continuous sections with Amira software. Femur and tibia (white), ACL (red) and PCL (blue). Red points indicate the attachment of the ACL to the femur and tibia. Blue points indicate the attachment of the PCL to the femur and tibia. The black point indicates the cross point of both ligaments. B: Measurement points. fACL: femoral attachment of ACL. fPCL: femoral attachment of PCL. tACL: tibial attachment of ACL. tPCL: tibial attachment of PCL. The cross point of ACL and PCL was indicated as intersection of cruciate ligament (iCL). Length of ACL (LACL) was calculated by length of ACL on femoral side (LAf) plus length of ACL on tibial side (LAt). Length of PCL (LPCL) was calculated by length of PCL on femoral side (LPf) plus length of PCL on tibial side (LPt).

Mentions: The cross point of the cruciate ligaments was designated as “Intersection of Cruciate Ligaments” (iCL). The attachment points of the cruciate ligaments to the femur and tibia were designated as “femoral attachment of ACL” (fACL), “femoral attachment of PCL” (fPCL), “tibial attachment of ACL” (tACL), and “tibial attachment of PCL” (tPCL) (Fig 1). These five coordinates were used to calculate lengths and angles.


Spatial Change of Cruciate Ligaments in Rat Embryo Knee Joint by Three-Dimensional Reconstruction.

Zhang X, Aoyama T, Takaishi R, Higuchi S, Yamada S, Kuroki H, Takakuwa T - PLoS ONE (2015)

Imaging of measurement points.A: A 3D reconstruction of the knee joint was generated from 2D continuous sections with Amira software. Femur and tibia (white), ACL (red) and PCL (blue). Red points indicate the attachment of the ACL to the femur and tibia. Blue points indicate the attachment of the PCL to the femur and tibia. The black point indicates the cross point of both ligaments. B: Measurement points. fACL: femoral attachment of ACL. fPCL: femoral attachment of PCL. tACL: tibial attachment of ACL. tPCL: tibial attachment of PCL. The cross point of ACL and PCL was indicated as intersection of cruciate ligament (iCL). Length of ACL (LACL) was calculated by length of ACL on femoral side (LAf) plus length of ACL on tibial side (LAt). Length of PCL (LPCL) was calculated by length of PCL on femoral side (LPf) plus length of PCL on tibial side (LPt).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4476736&req=5

pone.0131092.g001: Imaging of measurement points.A: A 3D reconstruction of the knee joint was generated from 2D continuous sections with Amira software. Femur and tibia (white), ACL (red) and PCL (blue). Red points indicate the attachment of the ACL to the femur and tibia. Blue points indicate the attachment of the PCL to the femur and tibia. The black point indicates the cross point of both ligaments. B: Measurement points. fACL: femoral attachment of ACL. fPCL: femoral attachment of PCL. tACL: tibial attachment of ACL. tPCL: tibial attachment of PCL. The cross point of ACL and PCL was indicated as intersection of cruciate ligament (iCL). Length of ACL (LACL) was calculated by length of ACL on femoral side (LAf) plus length of ACL on tibial side (LAt). Length of PCL (LPCL) was calculated by length of PCL on femoral side (LPf) plus length of PCL on tibial side (LPt).
Mentions: The cross point of the cruciate ligaments was designated as “Intersection of Cruciate Ligaments” (iCL). The attachment points of the cruciate ligaments to the femur and tibia were designated as “femoral attachment of ACL” (fACL), “femoral attachment of PCL” (fPCL), “tibial attachment of ACL” (tACL), and “tibial attachment of PCL” (tPCL) (Fig 1). These five coordinates were used to calculate lengths and angles.

Bottom Line: The ACL angle and PCL angle gradually decreased.The cross angle of the cruciate ligaments changed in three planes.The primordium of the 3D structure of rat cruciate ligaments was constructed from the early stage, with the completion of the development of the structures occurring just before birth.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Human Health Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

ABSTRACT
This study aimed to analyze the spatial developmental changes of rat cruciate ligaments by three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction using episcopic fluorescence image capture (EFIC). Cruciate ligaments of Wister rat embryos between embryonic day (E) 16 and E20 were analyzed. Samples were sectioned and visualized using EFIC. 3D reconstructions were generated using Amira software. The length of the cruciate ligaments, distances between attachment points to femur and tibia, angles of the cruciate ligaments and the cross angle of the cruciate ligaments were measured. The shape of cruciate ligaments was clearly visible at E17. The lengths of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) increased gradually from E17 to E19 and drastically at E20. Distances between attachment points to the femur and tibia gradually increased. The ACL angle and PCL angle gradually decreased. The cross angle of the cruciate ligaments changed in three planes. The primordium of the 3D structure of rat cruciate ligaments was constructed from the early stage, with the completion of the development of the structures occurring just before birth.

No MeSH data available.