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Altered Structural and Functional Connectivity in Late Preterm Preadolescence: An Anatomic Seed-Based Study of Resting State Networks Related to the Posteromedial and Lateral Parietal Cortex.

Degnan AJ, Wisnowski JL, Choi S, Ceschin R, Bhushan C, Leahy RM, Corby P, Schmithorst VJ, Panigrahy A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Late preterm preadolescence is associated with altered functional connectivity from the PMC and lateral parietal cortex to known distributed functional cortical networks despite no significant executive neurocognitive differences.Selective increased structural connectivity was observed in the setting of decreased posterior interhemispheric connections.Future work is needed to determine if these findings represent a compensatory adaptation employing alternate neural circuitry or could reflect subtle pathology resulting in emotional processing deficits not seen with neurocognitive testing.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, 4401 Penn Avenue, Floor 2, Pittsburgh, PA, 15224, United States of America; Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC), 3950 Presby South Tower, 200 Lothrop Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Objective: Late preterm birth confers increased risk of developmental delay, academic difficulties and social deficits. The late third trimester may represent a critical period of development of neural networks including the default mode network (DMN), which is essential to normal cognition. Our objective is to identify functional and structural connectivity differences in the posteromedial cortex related to late preterm birth.

Methods: Thirty-eight preadolescents (ages 9-13; 19 born in the late preterm period (≥32 weeks gestational age) and 19 at term) without access to advanced neonatal care were recruited from a low socioeconomic status community in Brazil. Participants underwent neurocognitive testing, 3-dimensional T1-weighted imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and resting state functional MRI (RS-fMRI). Seed-based probabilistic diffusion tractography and RS-fMRI analyses were performed using unilateral seeds within the posterior DMN (posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus) and lateral parietal DMN (superior marginal and angular gyri).

Results: Late preterm children demonstrated increased functional connectivity within the posterior default mode networks and increased anti-correlation with the central-executive network when seeded from the posteromedial cortex (PMC). Key differences were demonstrated between PMC components with increased anti-correlation with the salience network seen only with posterior cingulate cortex seeding but not with precuneus seeding. Probabilistic tractography showed increased streamlines within the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus within late preterm children while decreased intrahemispheric streamlines were also observed. No significant differences in neurocognitive testing were demonstrated between groups.

Conclusion: Late preterm preadolescence is associated with altered functional connectivity from the PMC and lateral parietal cortex to known distributed functional cortical networks despite no significant executive neurocognitive differences. Selective increased structural connectivity was observed in the setting of decreased posterior interhemispheric connections. Future work is needed to determine if these findings represent a compensatory adaptation employing alternate neural circuitry or could reflect subtle pathology resulting in emotional processing deficits not seen with neurocognitive testing.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Posteromedial Cortex Connectivity Comparison of Late Preterms versus Term Control Children.Representative plots on standard anatomic images demonstrate increases in functional connectivity in late preterms within the posterior DMN components. There is significant decreased connectivity to components of the executive network (right frontal). These findings are consistent with late prematurity-related posterior DMN hyperconnectivity and increased anti-correlation (decreased functional connectivity) to the central-executive network.
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pone.0130686.g002: Posteromedial Cortex Connectivity Comparison of Late Preterms versus Term Control Children.Representative plots on standard anatomic images demonstrate increases in functional connectivity in late preterms within the posterior DMN components. There is significant decreased connectivity to components of the executive network (right frontal). These findings are consistent with late prematurity-related posterior DMN hyperconnectivity and increased anti-correlation (decreased functional connectivity) to the central-executive network.

Mentions: Late preterm individuals during preadolescent childhood demonstrate increased functional connectivity when seeding from the PMC as shown in Fig 2. Increased functional connectivity strength was noted within the posterior DMN of the parietal and occipital cortices. Significantly increased anti-correlation was present within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for late preterms – a key component of the central-executive network.


Altered Structural and Functional Connectivity in Late Preterm Preadolescence: An Anatomic Seed-Based Study of Resting State Networks Related to the Posteromedial and Lateral Parietal Cortex.

Degnan AJ, Wisnowski JL, Choi S, Ceschin R, Bhushan C, Leahy RM, Corby P, Schmithorst VJ, Panigrahy A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Posteromedial Cortex Connectivity Comparison of Late Preterms versus Term Control Children.Representative plots on standard anatomic images demonstrate increases in functional connectivity in late preterms within the posterior DMN components. There is significant decreased connectivity to components of the executive network (right frontal). These findings are consistent with late prematurity-related posterior DMN hyperconnectivity and increased anti-correlation (decreased functional connectivity) to the central-executive network.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4476681&req=5

pone.0130686.g002: Posteromedial Cortex Connectivity Comparison of Late Preterms versus Term Control Children.Representative plots on standard anatomic images demonstrate increases in functional connectivity in late preterms within the posterior DMN components. There is significant decreased connectivity to components of the executive network (right frontal). These findings are consistent with late prematurity-related posterior DMN hyperconnectivity and increased anti-correlation (decreased functional connectivity) to the central-executive network.
Mentions: Late preterm individuals during preadolescent childhood demonstrate increased functional connectivity when seeding from the PMC as shown in Fig 2. Increased functional connectivity strength was noted within the posterior DMN of the parietal and occipital cortices. Significantly increased anti-correlation was present within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for late preterms – a key component of the central-executive network.

Bottom Line: Late preterm preadolescence is associated with altered functional connectivity from the PMC and lateral parietal cortex to known distributed functional cortical networks despite no significant executive neurocognitive differences.Selective increased structural connectivity was observed in the setting of decreased posterior interhemispheric connections.Future work is needed to determine if these findings represent a compensatory adaptation employing alternate neural circuitry or could reflect subtle pathology resulting in emotional processing deficits not seen with neurocognitive testing.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, 4401 Penn Avenue, Floor 2, Pittsburgh, PA, 15224, United States of America; Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC), 3950 Presby South Tower, 200 Lothrop Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Objective: Late preterm birth confers increased risk of developmental delay, academic difficulties and social deficits. The late third trimester may represent a critical period of development of neural networks including the default mode network (DMN), which is essential to normal cognition. Our objective is to identify functional and structural connectivity differences in the posteromedial cortex related to late preterm birth.

Methods: Thirty-eight preadolescents (ages 9-13; 19 born in the late preterm period (≥32 weeks gestational age) and 19 at term) without access to advanced neonatal care were recruited from a low socioeconomic status community in Brazil. Participants underwent neurocognitive testing, 3-dimensional T1-weighted imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and resting state functional MRI (RS-fMRI). Seed-based probabilistic diffusion tractography and RS-fMRI analyses were performed using unilateral seeds within the posterior DMN (posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus) and lateral parietal DMN (superior marginal and angular gyri).

Results: Late preterm children demonstrated increased functional connectivity within the posterior default mode networks and increased anti-correlation with the central-executive network when seeded from the posteromedial cortex (PMC). Key differences were demonstrated between PMC components with increased anti-correlation with the salience network seen only with posterior cingulate cortex seeding but not with precuneus seeding. Probabilistic tractography showed increased streamlines within the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus within late preterm children while decreased intrahemispheric streamlines were also observed. No significant differences in neurocognitive testing were demonstrated between groups.

Conclusion: Late preterm preadolescence is associated with altered functional connectivity from the PMC and lateral parietal cortex to known distributed functional cortical networks despite no significant executive neurocognitive differences. Selective increased structural connectivity was observed in the setting of decreased posterior interhemispheric connections. Future work is needed to determine if these findings represent a compensatory adaptation employing alternate neural circuitry or could reflect subtle pathology resulting in emotional processing deficits not seen with neurocognitive testing.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus